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He is also said to have studied Platonist philosophy under the direction of Xenocrates, and Polemo. .. Italiano: Zenone di Cizio Zeno of Citium Google+, Zeno of Citium Yahoo, Zeno of Citium MSN, Zeno of Citium Bing, Zeno of For example, by date: Zeno of Citium Black Friday, Zeno of Citium Cyber Monday, Zeno of. Use the links provided below on the date(s) listed to receive the savings. 2. All deals are available only while supplies last. No back orders. data are in shorter supply and those from India are of very insecure date' . His caveats are [email protected] Recent years have tibili paradossi di Zenone', Giorgio Israel identifies, in Zeno's paradoxes on the composition of the the Southern Tyrrhenian Coastal Area: Hypotheses from Neapolis and Elea-.
Just then, Crates of Thebes, the most famous Cynic living at that time in Greece happened to be walking by, and the bookseller pointed to him. Zeno is described as a haggard, dark-skinned person, living a spare, ascetic life despite his wealth. This coincides with the influences of Cynic teaching, and was, at least in part, continued in his Stoic philosophy. Hence Crates, desirous of curing this defect in him, gave him a potful of lentil-soup to carry through the Ceramicus; and when he saw that Zeno was ashamed and tried to keep it out of sight, Crates broke the pot with a blow of his staff.
As Zeno began to run off in embarrassment with the lentil-soup flowing down his legs, Crates chided, "Why run away, my little Phoenician? Nothing terrible has befallen you. He is also said to have studied Platonist philosophy under the direction of Xenocrates, and Polemo. His disciples were initially called Zenonians, but eventually they came to be known as Stoics, a name previously applied to poets who congregated in the Stoa Poikile.
Zeno instead sent his friend and disciple Persaeus, who had lived with Zeno in his house. Zeno is said to have declined Athenian citizenship when it was offered to him, fearing that he would appear unfaithful to his native land, where he was highly esteemed, and where he contributed to the restoration of its baths, after which his name was inscribed upon a pillar there as "Zeno the philosopher". We are also told that Zeno was of an earnest, gloomy disposition; that he preferred the company of the few to the many; that he was fond of burying himself in investigations; and that he disliked verbose and elaborate speeches.
Zeno died around BC. As he was leaving the school he tripped and fell, breaking his toe. Striking the ground with his fist, he quoted the line from the Niobe: During his lifetime, Zeno received appreciation for his philosophical and pedagogical teachings.
Among other things, Zeno was honored with the golden crown, and a tomb was built in honor of his moral influence on the youth of his era. The crater Zeno on the Moon is named in his honour. Philosophy Modern bust of Zeno in Athens Following the ideas of the Academics, Zeno divided philosophy into three parts: Logic a very wide subject including rhetoric, grammar, and the theories of perception and thought ; Physics not just science, but the divine nature of the universe as well ; and Ethics, the end goal of which was to achieve happiness through the right way of living according to Nature.
Because Zeno's ideas were later expanded upon by Chrysippus and other Stoics it can be difficult to determine precisely what he thought. But his general views can be outlined as follows: Zeno urged the need to lay down a basis for Logic because the wise person must know how to avoid deception.
Cicero accused Zeno of being inferior to his philosophical predecessors in his treatment of Logic, and it seems true that a more exact treatment of the subject was laid down by his successors, including Chrysippus. Zeno said that there were four stages in the process leading to true knowledge, which he illustrated with the example of the flat, extended hand, and the gradual closing of the fist: Zeno stretched out his fingers, and showed the palm of his hand, — "Perception," — he said, — "is a thing like this.
But when he brought his left hand against his right, and with it took a firm and tight hold of his fist: Physics The Universe, in Zeno's view, is God: Into this pantheistic system he incorporated the physics of Heraclitus; the Universe contains a divine artisan-fire, which foresees everything, and extending throughout the Universe, must produce everything: Further protection from development seems no need; but if any increasing erosional process will appear, this would require reassessment and should be closely monitored.
Copertina Vol. 28
Dinosaurs of Berivotra It is a type of locality for a large number of fossils including dinosaurs and crocodiles Fig.
These dinosaurs and all of the backboned animals that lived at the same time near the end of the Cretaceous Period are now extinct. According to the paleontologists from Stony Brook University in the United States, in collaboration with the researchers from the University of Antananarivo in Madagascar, the area of Berivotra constitutes a part of an ongoing large-scale research project.
The site is subject to spasmodic collection to amateurs and professionals, and still yields high grade material. The site is located within the Route Nationale 4. Any upgrade of the road should be accompanied by full Betafo is famous for its terraced rice paddy fields a gentle amphitheatre shape.
This artisanal irrigation network includes all activities aimed at expanding and developing water resources efficiently and effectively in particular to support the development of agriculture Fig.
The site has an important value for the historical and socio-cultural development of the local people. The site has protection as a result of its use as agricultural area rice field and its proximity to the Betafo River and the town centre. Sapphire mine of the giant Ilakaka placer deposit The gem deposits sapphire, ruby, alexandrite, topaz, tourmaline, garnet occur within alluvial terraces paleoplacers along the Route Nationale 7 in south-west Madagascar and consist of reworked Triassic Isalo sandstones known as upper Karoo Malagasy Fig.
Impacts of sapphire mining on Isalo National Park are L. Artisanal sapphire mining currently creates a number of environmental problems such as deforestation and sedimentation which generally disrupts water ecosystems. Advent of proposed quarrying expansion in the area should be closely monitored and controlled to retain any ecosystem and aesthetic value.
In this project, an adequate strategy for geoconservation is supported by a methodology based on several stages. The challenges are to: In this project, until now, more than 90 geosites were identified, most of them with national and international scientific relevance.
The geological frameworks were defined in this work and have been reconsidered and included in this approach. Despite the lack of structured strategy for geoconservation and monitoring of geosites, this flaw is being taken care of by an ongoing research project. In order to increase the protected areas for geoconservation and to reduce the natural resource degradation process, the following suggestions are highly solicited: Madamines, 2 3 Edition Cujas, France, tome 1, pp.
Tome 3, pp. Extralapis English Edition, London. Geological Society of America, 42 5pp. Maria 53,Pisa, Italy. Short note Manuscript history: Through dedicated field survey complemented by remote sensing analyses, we planned a geomorphological map of the Apuan Alps area with the aim to provide a useful tool in the management of the Apuan Alps Geopark inserted in the European Geopark Network since Here we present two examples of selected areas depicting different aspects of the geomorphological and cultural heritage of the Apuan Alps, sculpted by deeply different morphogenetic agents: Apuan Alps, cultural heritage, geomorphological map, GIS, glacial landform, historical quarry.
Inserted in the European Geoparks Network sincethis geopark presents several peculiarities that in overall constitute a natural and cultural heritage of high relevance in the Mediterranean Basin. The wide variety of geomorphological landforms and anthropogenic features, sometimes interconnected, allows to insight the history of the Apuan environment from many points of view.
A geomorphological map, specifically planned, is a formidable tool to depict this history. The Apuan Alps, located in the northern Tuscany, are an elliptic massif with the main axis, 50 km long, running parallel to the coast.
Monte Pisanino m a. A colour has been assigned to each landform and deposit for identifying the geomorphic process it originated from. Active and inactive landforms can be distinguished on the basis of the compatibility of the morphogenic factor that originated them with the morphoclimatic conditions acting at present. Because of the geomorphological peculiarities characterizing the landscape of the Apuan Alps and surrounding region the symbols have been implemented in respect to the dataset commonly used.
Particular attention has been dedicated to the anthropogenic processes such as those that strongly modeled the landscape in the large marble quarry area. Typical tools of remote sensing analysis and historical cartography have been also employed, in particular for investigating the floodplains and piedmont areas.
All the geomorphological data, obtained with both direct and indirect surveys, can be managed in a GIS environment and are here considered in order to build a geomorphological database of the area. Layers will be associated with attribute table in order to describe the occurrences belonging to each information layer.
In particular, attributes associated with individual morphotypes will describe the morphogenesis, the morphodynamics, the morphometry and, when available, the chronology of both erosional and depositional landform features.
Morphochronological data should be obtained also from comparison between multitemporal aerial photographs, as previously applied in other Tuscany area Ciccacci et al.
Copertina Vol. 28 - stirim.info
The geomorphological database will allow us to quickly integrate and update the information layers also with data from other sources, as well as to highlight and identify the main geomorphosites in the area. In red the Campocatino and Fossacava area Figs. Subduction of Adria Plate under Sardinia — Corsica block and back — arc rifting due to the eastward migration of the subduction and to the slab retreat are the two main processes responsible of the actual setting of the area.
The collisional tectonic phases, started from Oligocene, produced overlapping structures and metamorphic processes. In the whole area of the Apuan Alps three main tectonic domains, can be identified.
The Ligurian Domain Craetaceous sup. Landforms and deposits generated by marine and aeolian actions are widespread along the coast Bini et al.
The areas at the outskirts of the core of the Apuan Alps are strongly affected by slope and fluvial processes as documented by several landslides, deep-seated-slope-gravitationaldeformations, and huge alluvial fans; Federici et al.
Many of these processes are favoured by the structural lineaments crossing the Apuane Alps Putzolu, Also the epigeous features are widely evident, becoming a dominant elements of large slope sectors Vetricia plateau and Carcaraia slope. Moving toward the top of the mountains, landforms and deposits originated by the action of glaciers during the Upper Pleistocene are relatively well preserved Braschi et al.
Finally, the territory of the Apuan Alps includes the renowned marble extractive areas of Carrara. In these areas extensive landforms and deposits related to the past and modern marble quarrying activity are extraordinarily evident since a long distance Baroni et al. The selected areas Fig. In this respect, the low latitude, the proximity to the sea and the altitudes not exceeding m a.
The Campocatino site, located in the eastern sector of the Apuan Alps, is an exemplificative example showing how the Pleistocene glaciers shaped the Apuan landscape. Campocatino preserves several of the most common features of the glacial forefields of the mid latitude ranges i. Therefore, the area acquires a relevant didactical role, also because the geomorphology assessment plays a role in the ecosystem development several endemism are attested here.
The main glacial features in this area are mapped in Fig. The Roccandagia glacial cirque is carved in the marble of Monte Roccandagia m. The overdeepened hollow directly below the cirque is filled by lacustrine and fluviolacustrine deposits encompassed by moraine ridges. Campocatino morainic complex constitute a concentric system of lateral and frontal moraines, eventually dismantled in the frontal sector by fluvial erosion acting during the retreat phases of the glacier.
The most external morainic ridge system starts at m and at m on the E and W side respectively, and continues downward converging in correspondence of the Campocatino village. Minor moraine ridges are preserved within the external moraine Fig. Moraines have been locally reworked by shallow landslides, human actions as quarrying and agricultural activities.
In overall, the study of the morainic complex of Campocatino can enable us to formulate hypothesis about the glacial phases occurred in the Apuan Alps, and more in general on the effects of global palaeoclimatic changes in this Mediterranean mountain range.
The history of quarrying activity in the Apuan Alps, in particular in Carrara marble basins, goes back to the PreRoman and Roman period I millennium B. The gallic poet Rutilio Namaziano De reditu suo, A. After a long period of break following the Roman period, quarrying activity revived in the 12th Century, increasing during the Renaissance.
In the 18th Century explosives were introduced in quarrying activities, that was until that time carried out almost exclusively by hand. Thus, huge volumes of dump material were produced, with a consequent increase in the debris deposit, combined with remarkable changes in the landscape.
Today enormous tips of dump quarry material cover entire hillsides and valley bottoms Fig. The dump deposits ravanetibeing the result of such intense and lasting quarrying activity, constitute a widespread feature of the present landscape.
Frequently, they are involved in debris flows processes, representing a source of environmental hazard in the area Baroni et al. The multimillennial history of the quarrying activity combined with their role in modelling the landscape, made necessary to create an appropriate cartography. The Authors identify four main stratigraphic units in the ravaneti, mirror of the evolution of the quarrying techniques over the centuries.
Quarry dump deposits Ravanetisurficial weathering and vegetation cover: Quarry front and yards: Ravaneti and quarry areas are relevant sites for investigation on environmental changes induced by quarrying activities at the outskirts of a natural park rich in endemic vegetal species Gentili et al. Furthermore, these areas are key sites for defining the tolerance of different species to disturbance due to quarrying and for identifying native plant species suitable for future restoration of abandoned quarries.
The large variety of climatically driven landforms could have stored the main environmental events occurred since the Pleistocene.
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On the other hand, the anthropogenic landforms, from the extractive areas features to the land use diversification for agricultural purposes, tell us a story related to the main cultural events in the recent past. We believe that this type of cartography based on the overlapping of natural and anthropogenic landforms and historical documents may provide a insightful and complete product of broader interest for the national and international stakeholders of this Geopark.
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 25 1 Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria, 33 2 Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Quaternary International, The case study of Luna archaeological site surroundings. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 26 2 Tectonics, 9 6 Quaternary International, 1 Archivio on line, www.
Quaternary International,spec. Boreas, 41 2 ,