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Textbooks and Encyclopedias Russell had no textbook to assign to his students at Columbia University, because he developed his course before Comparative Education textbooks became available.

Instead, he relied on a large range of in-country reports, including some that he wrote, 12 Erwin H. Epstein on educational systems.

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Some of these reports, especially on the USA, were in the form of government documents. As the value of Comparative Education became apparent, and as educators became interested in sharing their comparativist findings and learning from others who had mutual interests, some universities began to see the need to incorporate this field into their curriculum.

As they developed courses in the field, the need for a common set of teaching materials, especially in the form of textbooks, grew concomitantly. However, although both Sandiford and Russell focused on country-by-country descriptions, Sandiford placed more emphasis on the degree of centralized educational policy control.

Sinceseveral Comparative Education textbooks have taken the same form of compiled readings, while others have been authored by one or more individuals rather than as edited compilations.

To be sure, Kandel did not ignore the structural elements of discrete educational systems. Yet he differed from Sandiford and most other textbooks of the era by considering the broad social movements, political developments, and intellectual currents that swept across national boundaries.

Indeed, even in the s, perhaps only Nicholas Hans came close to equaling Kandel in analyzing currents that blew across national educational systems Hans, By the s, a few textbooks kept to the old emphasis on educational structures e. King, ; Moehlman,but these were mostly left behind by a new emphasis on international issues as the core of Comparative Education. Some works of the s, most notably textbooks authored by BeredayBrian Holmesand Harold J. Noah and Max A.

The positivist, empirically oriented emphasis diminished somewhat in the s, and it was overshadowed for the most part by relativist, Marxist, and critical theory orientations as Comparative Education moved into the s and beyond. Structural descriptions of educational systems certainly did not disappear, but they became less the province of textbooks than encyclopedias.

This is not to say that textbooks in other languages are unimportant, yet they serve a much narrower audience. Of these, Spanish language textbooks are probably the most widespread, though textbooks in Chinese might soon eclipse readership of Spanish language textbooks, if they have not already done so.

Most textbooks in the field are oriented to the West, though a growing number are written for Asian and African readers. Curiously, one textbook from the old Soviet Union and translated into Spanish is an impassioned diatribe against Western and capitalist Comparative Education.

One is to pass on existing knowledge to future generations, the main aim of textbooks. The other aim is to serve as a source of knowledge on a comprehensive array of topics in the field, and this is the main aim of encyclopedias. Both serve as sources of knowledge but fulfill somewhat different tasks.

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Yearbooks and journals are also key sources of knowledge but are less useful for conveying existing knowledge or serving as reference guides. Rather, their purpose is more to inform about new knowledge and find new ways of creating knowledge. Issued recurrently according to a set schedule, they focus more on discrete topics and are less comprehensive in their coverage of the field.

In Comparative Education, yearbooks came before journals. Kandel from to Each yearbook issue usually covered one to three topics as those topics applied to several countries. As examples, the Yearbook addressed teacher training, the issue addressed the expansion of secondary education, and the issue covered religious education.

Two yearbooks that were established about a decade later than The Educational Yearbook but lasted longer were the Year Book of Education and the International Yearbook of Education. Early in the s, about a decade after The Educational Yearbook ceased to function, the Year Book of Education became a transatlantic venture, sponsored jointly by the Institute of Education of the University of London and Teachers College of Columbia University.

The original edition in Russian was published by Prosveschenie in Moscow, Epstein was edited, by contrast, not at a university but by the International Bureau of Education in Geneva, and was more encyclopedic, reporting on educational developments in a large range of countries.

These yearbooks counted among their editors some of the most distinguished comparativists of their time. Academic journals have served an even more important purpose than yearbooks in sustaining the wellbeing and stability of Comparative Education.

In contrast to yearbooks, which as their name connotes, are issued annually, journals, which are normally issued three or four times a year, keep practitioners more closely informed of important current research. Journals play a large role in setting scholarly norms and boundaries as well as standards of quality.

Also, they give those with common interests a sense of identity about their field. Indeed, given that the IER represented the first formal collaboration of leading comparativists across continents, its editorship marked the launching of Comparative Education as an international field. Stephen Duggan, Director of the Institute of International Education at Teachers College, Columbia University and Franz Hilker, who, next to Schneider, was the most prominent German comparativist of the time viewed the enterprise as a critical step forward.

Monroe had abundant editorial experience, having been editor-in-chief of the five-volume Cyclopedia of Educationand was the founding director of the first center for Comparative Education, the International Institute of Education at Teachers College, Columbia University.

Unfortunately, Germany proved to be an uncongenial site for the new enterprise. Shortly afterward, Schneider was dismissed from his university positions. Monroe left the IER inand shortly afterward the journal came undisputedly under complete Nazi control.

It remained so throughout the war. A complete break with the past came inwhen the name of the journal was changed to the International Review of Education IRE and again renumbered. By this time, Schneider had moved back to Germany and shared a new international co-editorship with Karl W. Langeveld in Utrecht, and Walter Merck in Hamburg. In addition, an international board of editorial consultants was appointed to guide the newly reconstituted journal.

To be sure, the first internationally recognized journal in Comparative Education had fallen prey to a notoriously despotic regime for more than a decade. It is notable that throughout its history, the CER, though always based in the USA, frequently appointed members to its editorial board from other countries, especially from Europe and Canada.

Inthe International Journal of Educational Development, focusing specifically on issues of the developing world, began publication, also in the United Kingdom. One periodical, Oxford Studies in Comparative Education, published twice a year, has both yearbook and journal characteristics. Epstein Although journals in English dominated the field, other high-quality periodicals, occasionally short-lived, emerged in other languages, especially in French e.

The most recently launched journals in Comparative Education are on-line periodicals. These programs developed slowly at the beginning of the 20th century and reached a crescendo of growth by the beginning of the 21st century. Although a variety of countries and international organizations have research institutes in Comparative Education, I focus here only on research and teaching centers at universities.

Comparative Education programs arose out of an interest in preparing individuals to specialize in the field. The existence of coursework was not sufficient to sustain a body of work that was becoming increasingly valued. As coursework and books about Comparative Education grew, prominent schools of education began to realize that they needed to take the lead in creating units focused on improving domestic schools by learning from the experience of schools in other countries.

To achieve this purpose, resources had to be secured for preparing comparativists and to support research. Although the epistemological foundations of Comparative Education were laid mainly in Europe, the initial impetus for the formation of programs was in the USA.

Beginning around the turn of the 20th century, American and British universities were increasingly called upon to train students from abroad. For example, in the aftermath of the Spanish-American War, the Americans administering the affairs of Cuba arranged to have over 1, Cuban teachers trained or retrained at Harvard University during their summer vacations see Epstein, InJohn D.

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The initial aim of the International Institute was to export American democratic education to promote world democracy and international understanding. At the time the International Institute was founded, more that 2, foreign students had studied at Teachers College, and students from abroad constituted more than six percent of the total student body.

Paul 7 I do not here include journals in International Education such as Journal of Research in International Educationa field closely tied to but separate from Comparative Education. Although the International Institute became defunct in with the termination of the Rockefeller Foundation grant that supported it, Comparative Education remained strong at Teachers College. Even more important, the International Institute inspired the creation of programs at other universities, especially in the United States Bu, However, the formalization of a program in Comparative Education at the University of London did not come until decades after the creation of the International Institute at Teachers College.

These positions became central to the formation of programs at the University of London, where students were trained, research was carried out, and important publications issued in the field. Somewhat later, important centers were launched at Cambridge, Oxford, and Reading. The s became the decade of inauguration of a number of Comparative Education programs, some of which did not last.

Arnold Anderson, had a huge impact on the field, abetted especially by scholars at Columbia University and Stanford University, by setting in motion a positivist thrust. As in the case with the International Institute at Teachers College, Columbia University during the s, the Comparative Education Center at Chicago suffered a slow decline beginning in the s when philanthropic funding in this case, from the Ford Foundation was withdrawn.

The Comparative Education program at the University of Michigan, which in the s and s probably prepared more comparativists than Chicago, faded in the early s after the death of Claude Eggertsen. Outside of Britain and North America, one of the earliest programs was the Department of Contemporary Education and School Abroad Sector sovremenno pedagogiki i shkoly za rubezhom of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences in Moscow, begun in but rooted in an even earlier program Veikshan, Also in the s, the University of Hamburg had the earliest Comparative Education program in Germany.

The 18 Erwin H. In a comprehensive survey by Bradley J. Hite and Erwin H. Epstein of the membership of the Comparative and International Education Society USAwhose members, though mainly from North America, come from many parts of the world, respondents reported, in rank order, that the programs at the following universities were the most influential in Comparative Education: All but two of these programs are in the USA. Yet to sustain a field scholars need a vehicle to facilitate their meeting and sharing ideas across programs.

Professional associations serve that purpose. Not only was it the first Comparative Education association to be launched, but it has been the largest and most diverse of the 36 national, regional, and linguistic constituent members of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies, the umbrella organization for societies in the field around the world. The organization never placed restrictions on membership, unlike European societies that were launched early in the wake of the CES.

It is worthy of note that the University of Chicago should rank so high, in view of the fact that the Comparative Education Center had been defunct for more than a decade. The figures shown in Table 1 of Cook, Hite, and Epstein suggest that about 25 percent of the membership is from outside North America.

It is reasonably safe to say that at least 15 percent of the membership is from Canada. The Society has even held several of its annual meetings in other countries, including at least two each in Canada and Mexico, and one in Jamaica. Vandra Masemann, Mark Bray, and Maria Manzon have compiled comprehensive and detailed histories of the Comparative Education societies and of their umbrella association, the World Council of Comparative Education Societies. Therefore only a brief summation need be given here.

Just as Teachers College, Columbia University played a large role in the launching of Comparative Education programs elsewhere, so did the Comparative Education Society in the USA serve as a model for other associations in the field. Most of these sections, such as the francophone group, eventually evolved into independent associations, with their own meetings and administrative structures. National organizations also developed in other parts of the world, beginning in with the formation of the Japan Comparative Education Society.

With the formation of several national and regional organizations, some comparativists saw the need for a network connecting scholars around the world.

Inthe Committee became the World Council of Comparative Education, and in was renamed as the World Council of Comparative Education Societies, which became the umbrella organization for all formally recognized national and regional Comparative Education associations. In brief, it took half a century for Comparative Education to grow from one to 36 societies, an expansion that was greatly aided by the work of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies.

These organizations have played a vital part in the institutionalization of Comparative Education as an academic field. Such databases are generated by surveys that fall generally into three categories: Epstein Attitudinal and Demographic Surveys A group of graduate students and faculty at the University of Michigan conducted plausibly the first surveys of attitudes about the field.

Unfortunately, too few conference participants were included in the survey to ensure that the findings reliably represented the views overall of CIES members. The much more recent survey conducted by Cook, Hite, and Epstein, mentioned earlier, included far more participants, was far more representative of the CIES membership, and was far more extensive in its coverage of themes and content. Among the most interesting findings, the authors showed that 70 percent of respondents received their academic degree outside of Comparative and International Education, and more than one-third of the respondents had never taken an introductory course in the field.

These can be world wide or within countries. Two projects involving worldwide surveys stand out: Directed by Erwin H.

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The database is essentially an accessible archive of key elements of those courses including unit topics, referenced articles, journals and texts, as well as the interests and specializations of Comparative Education course instructors.

Those either planning to teach or who are already teaching Comparative Education can use CIECAP as a tool for designing their course syllabi and for comparing their course to what is being taught in programs at other universities.

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The database currently contains information from 21 universities in the USA and 10 universities outside that country.

It plans also in the near future to inventory and analyze the nature of Comparative Education centers worldwide. The authors collected data from institutions. The work was basically an inventory of programs: It contained little analysis and underrepresented Comparative Education in some parts of the world.

There was no effort to discern trends or relate textbook use to individual or institutional analysis. It was much less extensive and covered far fewer programs than the present edition. The present edition in particular could serve as a platform for the ongoing work of CIECAP as it moves into surveying Comparative Education centers around the world. In a few short years, comparativists will have ongoing access to information on the characteristics, events and activities of a large international array of university programs in Comparative Education.

In addition to worldwide databases, there have been a few surveys of Comparative Education programs within countries, especially in the UK and Argentina. Keith Watson conducted probably the earliest of these, though not as extensive or comprehensive as later studies. He concluded that there had been a decline of Comparative Education faculty at UK universities in the early s, due to reduced funding Watson, InMichele Schweisfurth conducted a survey of changes in the number of Comparative Education graduate programs and in research at UK universities.

She studied prospectuses of programs at 91 universities and colleges, focused in detail on four of these, and interviewed key people in the field. Comparative Education had declined as a discrete academic course of study and virtually disappeared in pre-service teacher training, although she observed growth in research due to European Union funding arrangements Schweisfurth, InMaggie Wilson reviewed an array of websites at UK universities to determine the extent and distribution of Comparative Education in education departments, and contacted a subsample of institutions to examine such patterns in detail.

She then sent questionnaires to 67 individuals known to have an interest in Comparative Education. She found that the M. Wilson reported that 42 percent of the departments surveyed featured a comparative dimension in some aspects of coursework Wilson, Of these, 19 contained coursework relating to Comparative Education.

Content and Citation Analyses One final way of looking internally is by means of content and citation analyses of leading academic journals in the field. What does the corpus of literature in the field reflect about the values, approaches, and aims of Comparative Education?

Koehl conducted probably the first comprehensive and systematic analysis of Comparative Education literature. In the mids, he reviewed the contents of three major journals: He studied not only the featured articles in these journals, but also book reviews, bibliographic notices, reports of conferences, and biographical notes.

In doing so, his analysis covered hundreds of entries. He did not uniformly analyze these categories across the three journals and did not attempt to associate content variables with characteristics of authors or readers Koehl, Halls did a much less extensive study focusing on articles appearing from to in the International Review of Education. He found that 17 percent of the articles were not classifiable by country, 40 percent focused mainly on one country, 30 percent concentrated on two to six countries, and thirteen percent treated seven or more countries Halls,p.

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