Historical Materialism () - [PDF Document]
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Section 3 is a brief analysis of key Marx s texts. Section 4 updates Goldner s insights. Section 5 gives open conclusions. References are listed at the end of the article. History of economic thought, capitalist systems, socialism, communism.
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The scientific problem Marxism like any other vision about the world must be conceptualized and analysed to inquiry whether its ideas and perceptions are scientific or rational for detaching it from false consciousness and applications.
This ample objective is undertaken by analysing some of the problems set by Marxism in terms of its scientific foundations. The scientific problem at hand deals with the obtaining of objective understanding about the theoretical problems related to the bifurcation of Marxism in two strands: This task was originally conducted by Alvin Gouldner inbut this understanding can be improved with the aid of new developments in the fields of economics, sociology and philosophy, with an interdisciplinary strength.
Scientific Marxism SM aims to adhere to rules and order for overcoming Capitalism by means of Socialism and then by Communism, based on the analysis of needs. For that purpose, SM studies the evolution of productive forces. If the main issue is according to Gouldner studying the changes and its mechanisms in Marx, Critical Marxism CM considers contingencies, is voluntarist and aims to quickly re-establishing freedom after attaining equality.
Its contention is that Capitalism effective as it is, produces alienation. Critical Marxism revolutionary or historical and Scientific Marxism evolutionary are rivals in terms of the solution provided to the problem related to the fastness of human emancipation once 2 Table 1: Main Differences in Bifurcated Marxism Source: Based on Gouldner In Gouldner s view, CM is based is a reconstructive critique of current society grounded on the formation of shared consciousness.
Historical Materialism 19.1 (2011)
The possibility exists for overcoming the current social structures and their impact on men. For that goal, CM interprets events in terms of vital values and hence advocates a revolutionary procedure as a remedy for these ills. Thus Revolutionary Marxism almost French in spirit is a bet for a sudden end to inequality. SM on its part deals with unavoidable laws and is mainly interested on cognition. It stresses the role of technology for achieving the gradual evolution of economic systems, assessing the context of development before taking any action with productive forces at its core.
It is atomistic and entails modernization in terms of needs emancipation. Science is hereby reified but its antihistoricity and abstractionism are criticised. It is dominated by natural relations and benefits from the socio-cultural universe in 2 main realms: The economic infra-structure and the super-structure.
Both stands differ in terms of their epistemological cores, according to Gouldner. Further it is hereby contended that both strands also differ in terms of metaphysical vision, especially about time considerations, but also in ethical insights and in political consequences related to the type of actions to be undertaken. Related scientific problems Before studying some key Marx s texts and analysing Gouldner insights it is hereby placed the problem at hand in context. In other words, it must be investigated whether other types of bifurcation exist in Marx-Engels vision.
This means that CM and SM converge or cohabit. It is also interesting finding out if there is a gap between the young and the old Marx as enunciate by Althusser. Other research paths in Marxist philosophy related to the problem at hand are investigating whether Marxism is insulated from other orthodox epistemological research programmes, or even whether Marxism is applicable or minimized due to misunderstandings, misappropriations or ideological concerns.
It is interesting to analyse whether Marxism is only normative, original or inverted with respect either to, for example, Hegel s or Feuerbach s insights. The problem of practice in Marxism has been due to political failures in the countries where it has been applied in the early 20th Century.
The contention hereby exposed is that the analysis of the bifurcation of Marxism into CM and SM is the key issue for grasping the essence of other problems in Marxism. Thus, the vision about this problem is holistic or organic, that is, the core and the heuristic organizing principles of Marxism and hereby analysed for that purpose. The only statement that can be enunciated is that Marxism generates different interpretations and meanings, an insight which only proves its enduring legacy.
A brief analysis of Marx s texts In Gouldner s perspective a representative text on critical Marxism about revolutions and evolution are the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of as they portray Marx s idealised anthropology aimed to explaining men destiny. Perhaps critiques would say that this book echoes Feuerbach s findings. Other key texts in this issues on the impact of socialist revolution and his emancipatory effects on human emancipation are the Theses on Feuerbach and The German Ideology This is due to the emphasis these two books lay upon the assumption of a new historical-ideological achievement that leads to praxis, according to which human beings are the main agent for the attainment of emancipation, especially in economic terms.
Universal concepts are essentially philosophical such as alienation, ideology and the like. According to these texts nothing is to be awaited upon. They correspond to the continental phase of Marx s thinking, when he was living and writing in 3 Germany, Paris and Brussels.
Emphasis is laid upon ruling out old ideas through direct means. This timely vision regarding sudden changes would later be taken by Rosa Luxemburg for supporting his ideas on spontaneous revolutions.
Under this framework revolutions are achieved by means of a single isolated and definitive effort, even though Lenin would advocate scientific socialism, and Trotsky would ground his ideas on permanent revolutions.
It is widely considered that the watershed on Marxist thinking iswhen The Misery of Philosophy was published see Nicholaus, According to Nicholaus, this text is the decisive point on Marx s scientific perspective. Still other authors consider that the watershed is the Manifest of the Communist Party However other experts consider that the key texts are A speech on free trade or even Wage labour and capital Perhaps even more importantly Das Kapital is a scientific text full of definitions and new relationships with an emphasis upon technology, aiming to analyse the concepts of surplus, merchandise and money among others.
This textbook corresponds to the London library age of Marx. In this context revolutions must wait for developments attained through piece-meal efforts based on applied knowledge. At any rate, it is considered that this deterministic scientific approach was advocated by Engels. However, Marx s role is not considered in modern scholarship as only praising scientific socialism, which he only advocated in his mature years. Proof is that Engels wrote that Marx was pre-eminently a revolutionary Engels, Actually, Marx was an impulsive revolutionary who acted after deep reflection.
In this frame of mind both Gramsci and Lukacs are critical Marxists, whereas Althusser is a scientific Marxist.
The update of Gouldner s insights Gouldner states in his introduction that his: No pretensions for originality exist in this insight regarding the choice of the topic in question.
In Appendix One, Gouldner writes: Gouldner attempts to identify both differences and similarities between SM and CM seeing both as part of a single unique message, that is both strands cohabit in both theory and practice. CM is labelled as ideological, whereas SM is accused for being both passive and positivistic.
Is this all true? The idea is to investigate which are the new theoretical and practical developments on the issue suggested by Gouldner. The goal is to assess the value of Marxist theory for modern times by identifying the relative strengths of both Marxist strands in terms of objectives and method as well as its consequences on politics and historical stages.
Thus, both theory and methods are hereby analysed in dialectic terms, even though the former is related to human actions and the latter to natural laws.
However, SM is a small force in given the strength of Capitalism despite financial crises and growing inequalities.
Hence, we depart from Gouldner s contention since the revolutionary trait he attributed to productive forces has not been materialized. Only the core of the theory survives and this refers to the obtaining of emancipation through practical knowledge.
This means that CM is still alive, being a pioneer force in the emergence of critical realism contributing an organicist focus. CM is also alive due to its wealth of reach and interdisciplinary focus, and hence we can conclude that Marx s core is revolutionary. This is due to its calls for attaining urgent freedom, a plead that can be extended to any marginalized group. On the other hand, both the economy and technology as considered by SM have been ideologically overcame, at least in ideologically practical terms.
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- Historical Materialism 19.1 (2011)
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