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Most modern operating systems include a software firewall, which is enabled by default. A software firewall can be configured to allow or deny network traffic to or from a service or application running on the operating system. Therefore, one can install and be running an insecure service, such as Telnet or FTP, and not have to be threatened by a security breach because the firewall would deny all traffic trying to connect to the service on that port.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Text 2. As organizations invest in new business systems and processes to exchange critical information to, from and about customers, partners, and employees in real time, more opportunity exists for information leaks.
Data breaches are rapidly becoming the forerunner of IT security concerns, in part because of the increase in both the frequency and severity of such breaches. For security professionals, the pressure to provide data security is influenced by three factors: Information leaks are not solely relegated to organizations with customer data or regulatory requirements; many non-regulated companies share a need to secure sensitive data.
These organizations are as concerned about leaks both external and internal as regulated companies because of the strategic nature of the information they manage and the frequency with which they fall victim to leaks. Over the years, organizations have spent a tremendous amount of resources in hopes of protecting their information. However, their efforts have been focused on preventing outsiders from hacking into the organization, educating employees, and securing data at rest.
According to analyst firms, the majority of all leaks are the result of unintentional information loss from employees and partners, both external and internal leaks. They have the advantage that they are simple to install, and provide a relatively low cost of ownership.
Because decoding network traffic at high speed is extremely complex and difficult transmitted objects are broken into small parts, often encoded, and then mixed with other trafficNetwork based systems typically integrate with or include technologies to discover information 'at rest' while it is stored in file systems and databases. Discovering sensitive data at rest is far simpler and less time critical, thereby allowing greater levels of accuracy.
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Taking 'signatures' of data identified at rest, and then looking for such signatures as data passes over the network boundary, is a technique favored by virtually all Network system vendors to improve accuracy, and to identify sensitive data that would otherwise be missed. The technique does suffer from the disadvantage that it must have previously been scanned at rest in order to be identified, and therefore newly created data, for example typed directly into an email message, is often missed.
Network systems have the disadvantage that they can only monitor external communications, and therefore cannot consider internal leaks - between departments for example, and that they are easily defeated by encryption, or even compressing sensitive data in a Zip file format or similar archive.
Since they are not limited to operation at the network boundary, host based systems can address internal as well as external communications, and can therefore be used to control information flow between groups or types of users eg 'Chinese walls'. Workstation systems have the advantage that they can monitor and control access to physical devices such as USB keys, iPods etc and in some cases can access information before it has been encrypted.
Workstation systems can also provide granular application controls to block attempted transmissions of confidential information, and provide immediate feedback to the user. They have the disadvantage that they need to be installed on every workstation in the network, cannot be used on mobile devices eg Blackberryor where they cannot be practically installed for example on a workstation in an internet site using Outlook Web Access to send corporate email. Server based systems, for example on email or file servers, have the advantage that they only need to be installed on a relatively small number of machines, but provide protection for a full range of corporate email clients eg Blackberry and Web clients.
They do however require deep integration with messaging and file systems, and few vendors provide them. The most comprehensive protection is provided by solutions where both Network and Host based systems are combined, preferably within a single management platform where rules are defined centrally and distributed automatically, and where results are gathered and presented in a single console.
This approach is endorsed by industry analysts. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Text 3. For instance, a user in marketing could be allowed to view, or read a data file in accounting but not be permitted to change or write to it.
Security management is also important in managing the network itself — for instance, only certain individuals such as network administrators should be permitted to change configuration settings on a server or other key network devices. As already noted, this type of information can help network administrators pinpoint areas or network segments that pose potential problems. In this scheme, a supervisor has access rights that allow reconfiguring and upgrading the entire system.
The workgroup manager, available with NetWare 3. X, controls only the resources of a single user or user group. This concept allows a supervisor to distribute some of the responsibility for maintaining the network to others around a large network. The user can access only those resources allowed by the supervisor or workgroup manager with NetWare 3. Although users can access the NetWare management utilities, their rights to actually perform management functions are severely limited.
Identifying and topping intrusion — in all its forms — is what security is all about. But identifying a potential intrusion is not always obvious, or likely. The usual security suspects — CIA agents, nd industrial espionage — make great headlines, but they don't pose real risks to the average company. However, just because you're not building the next secret weapon doesn't mean that ou're not at risk from security breaches.
Far more often, security risks come from acts committed out of human error, greed, malcontent, or machine error. Physical theft, electronic tampering, and unauthorized access are just three of the more obvious threats to network equipment and data. Physical theft includes people stealing computers, taking floppies with data, and tapping into the cable to siphon off information. Electronic tampering covers computer viruses and other malicious reprogramming.
Unauthorized access, the most common threat to security, usually occurs when people see information they shouldn't. Networks seriously increase access to your information, and with access comes he responsibility of restriction and control.
In addition to the usual sources of security breaches—people taping passwords to their monitors and using scanners to electronically eavesdrop—networks invite a whole host of other vulnerabilities. It's easy enough to drop another workstation or server on the network or add another application. Add the ability to dial into the network system, and you pose an even greater risk.
There is no simple formula for calculating your security needs. The amount of security depends upon the threat you perceive. In some cases, the need for security is clear: In other cases, the risks may be less obvious.
Allowing any worker to examine the payroll file makes for disgruntled employees. Your personal calendar indicates when you are out of town. The following are some of the more common risks to network security.
Your network can be a danger to itself. Being made of mechanical components, a network can do itself damage when disk heads crash, servers fail, and power supplies blow. Tape and disk platters get old and go bad. Bugs, such as in an out-of-control operating system process or one with a faulty memory mapping, destroy data. Monitor mechanical equipment for wear. For critical components, keep spares onsite or, if warranted, online.
Your network is physically vulnerable. Thieves and other intruders can physically break into your building, wiring closet, or server room and steal or vandalize equipment and data.
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When a file is erased, very often it physically remains on disk or tape — only the entry to the directory structure is removed. Sensitive documents may be printed out and left lying around the office, waiting for prying eyes or thieving hands. Your first line of defense is the simplest: Use locks, guards, and alarms to rotect against these physical vulnerabilities. Lock servers in a room and lock wiring closets, permitting access to only those with a key.
Sensitive data must be completely wiped off the media when deleted. Shred all sensitive printouts. Bolt expensive equipment to the floor or to a desk. A slew of products exist to prevent intruders from physically taking equipment. Most involve locking equipment with metal bars, in steel cabinets, or with large chains.
Others sound loud alarms to deter the thief. These products can help to keep your equipment from being physically stolen it also makes them difficult to move from one station to another. If your security needs are extreme, you might employ biometric devices. Biometric devices use a physical aspect of people, such as their fingerprints, to verify their identity. The next step is to secure the cable. Copper cable gives off electromagnetic radiation, which can be picked up with listening devices, with or without tapping into the cable.
One solution is to fiber-optic cable, which does not emit electromagnetic signals and is more difficult to tap without detection. Diskless PCs are a popular security measure. A diskless PC lacks floppy and ixed drives. Users must boot the computers off the file server. With no drives, no way to remove data physically exists. However, be aware that diskless PCs with serial and parallel ports and expansion slots are insecure. A user can insert a removable disk into an expansion slot and remove data.
Or the user can attach a printer. Another step is to physically limit access to data sources. Use the keyboard lock on PCs and file servers.
Lock file servers in closets or computer rooms, thus preventing direct access and forcing intruders to circumvent network security.
Rooms with doors and locks are good places for printers and other output devices since printed data may be as sensitive as electronic data. Viruses are potentially one of the most dangerous and costly types of intrusion. Although they are relatively rare to a well-kept network, the penalties inflicted by a virus can be severe. Your network is vulnerable at any point it contacts the outside world, from floppy drives to bridges to modem servers.
At these external contacts, your network's messages can be intercepted or misrouted. Workers take notebooks on the road and may come into contact with a virus-infected computer. Users may take work home, where their home computers are infected. Demonstration programs, bulletin boards, and even shrink-wrapped software may have viruses. Protecting your network against a computer virus is much the same as protecting it from unauthorized access. If intruders can't access the network, they can't unleash a virus.
However, many viruses are introduced by unwitting authorized users. Any new software should be suspected of having viruses. Although programs from bulletin boards may sometimes be infected, several software companies have shipped shrink-wrapped software that was infected with a virus.
While specialized programs can look out for viruses and limit the havoc they wreak, no program can prevent a virus. It can only deal with the symptoms. Intentional threats are also potentially damaging. Employees and outsiders pose intentional threats. Outsiders — terrorists, criminals, industrial spies, and crackers — pose the more newsworthy threats, but insiders have the decided advantage of being familiar with the network.
Disgruntled employees may try to steal information, but they may also seek revenge by discrediting an employee or sabotaging a project. Employees may sell proprietary information or illegally transfer funds. Employees and outsiders may team up to penetrate the system's security and gain access to sensitive information. Workstation file systems present a threat to the network.
Index of /gallery/films
DOS is easy to circumvent. Oh, now David, that's not fair. You're studying them in school now and I haven't been to school in years. Softening her voice to a prettily maternal tone of mild reproof. It's been years since mother studied the capitals, you know. It's only a short way to the square. It's a long way from here. Which is the best way there? You're going in the opposite way direction.
Which is the way out? There's no way through. Can't you find your way home alone? Are you going my way? Shall I see you part of the way? He lives over the way on the other side of the road. Which is the right way to the station? They must have lost their way in the dark. Please show me the way to the Zoo.
It is in an out-of-the-way place comer. Which is the shortest way to the planetarium? The taxi-driver brought us a long way round, not by the shortest way. Now that we have come so far, we may as well walk all the way. I don't know what to do or which way to turn. Where does this road lead? I know the road, it is a good fast one. You may go by either road. You've mistaken the road.
May 1 help you over the road? Are we on the right road? Go right to the end of this road and turn to the left. Follow this road until you reach the hotel. On turning the comer youti see that the road descends steeply.
The road slopes to the sea by a gradual descent. The roads are slick slippery with wet mud. The motor-car skidded slipped sidewise on the wet road. Distance in Every day Speech 1. It's a long distance off. The station is no distance at all. It's quite a distance from here. He lives within easy distance of his office. My house is within a walking distance of the University. The house stands on a hill and can be seen at a distance of two miles.
The house has trees round it and cannot be seen from a distance. There are many people in the street. Let's walk on the shady side of the street. Meet me at the comer of the street. The window gives upon faces the street. He looked down the street for her. She saw him coming down the pebbly street. They were walking along the street. When you cross a busy street you should use caution. Our streets are brightly lit up.
They went up a hill to a small clean street. A wide street is called an avenue. The reconstruction of Moscow has made it possible to widen the streets. There are many well laid-out streets and avenues in the city. The street is built up with well-proportioned buildings. That is a quiet street. The streets are congested at New Year. The streets soon emptied when the rain began. The streets were bedecked decorated with flags. They are stringing lamps across the street.
The Gallery is off Cork Street. He lives at 22, Lenin Street. Answer your friend's questions: Do you know the town you live in very well? What number bus do you take when you go to work?
What kind of city transport do you like best? What is the most convenient kind of city transport if there is such? What is the usual interval between underground trains? From what time in the morning till what time at night do buses, trolley-buses and trams run? Are the traffic rules in Britain different from those in other European countries? What are traffic lights used for?
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What is the main street in your town? What are the most common conversational formulas we use when asking the way? Are there conductors on buses and trams in Samara? How do passengers pay their-fares? May I ask you The information booth is over there. You'd better take a bus. We can't do better tnan take a taxi. Certainly it is, but if you walk, you'll have to give yourself half an hour to get there in time.
It's at the other end of the town. It's a stone's throw from here. Supply prepositions or adverbs where necessary: How far is it the lake wharf? We are still a mile short our destination. He lives a mile the air-port. Go right until you get the circus. Can you direct me the Fine Arts Museum? To reach the monument walk two blocks east and then turn the left. Am I to turn right? He lives easy reach. The street goes, the square. Turn the highway the smaller roads.
Turn right an angle. I thank you helping me. You'll find it the bottom the street. Make up some dialogues of your own on the following topics: Read and translate the text "Bread, Kumiss and Civil War". Samara, the most easterly. But in the early s, when the Moscow government made Samara, initially far from the German front, its wartime seat, the Voskresensky Sobor became an ideological embarrassment.
It was the town's most prominent wartime architectural casualty, blown up in stages, at night. Children scoured the streets next day for coloured fragments from the cupolas and frescoes. Post-war Samara built an opera and ballet theatre on this church's foundations, while the catacombs and tunnels under the church were converted into a wartime bunker for Stalin. The bunker is open to visitors nowadays. There are many tensions in the recent history of the city.
From being Samara, a county town of wheat and camels and horses, it became the industrial city of Kuibyshev in Colsed to the world after the Second World War, the city Kuibyshev went on to produce rockets and aircraft, including the TU, Russia's more than adequate answer to the Boeing Electronic equipment, machine tools, bearings, building materials, clothes and processed foods, ultimately almost everything the Soviet Union needed to survive was made here.
They called Samara a Russian Chicago because, still small init very quickly grew with the railway into a mighty provincial industrial city. Before Soviet times, prosperity depended on grain. Samara, along with Ukraine, made Russia the world's biggest grain exporter by From all around Samara province, and neighbouring Orenburg province, peasants and gentry landowners, travelling by horse and cart, by sled and by camel, delivered winter wheat and rye, also oats, barley and millet.
The grain was stored in some two hundred and fifty silos along the Volga and the Samara, and international spring sales followed. Grain brought wealth but also disaster. From Kazan to Samara and Saratov the Volga region was prey to famine, caused by excessively hot summers and insufficient rain.
When the crop failed the poor suffered most, because they had insuficiant land for their needs. Crisis years were andl, when the summer temperature in Samara hovered between 43 and 45 C about F.
Famine meant typhus, dead cattle, dead children. Tolstoy remembered his mother standing at the window and weeping with relief when a rainstorm finally interrupted the broiling summer they experienced at their country home. In another early story he painted an opposite picture of careless plenty, with the very rooms in the house of a declining landowning family ankle-deep in grain.
That was the extreme rhythm of Russian agricultural life, with terrible political consequences. Write 15 questions about the text. Comment on the title of the text. Give the summary of the text. The site for the building was chosen near the Strukovsky Garden. Petr Alabin planned to organize 16 departments in the museum.
Nevertheless, it was not until that the museum was opened in a rented house. Thanks to the help of local intellectuals and Alabin s correspondence with Russian cultural workers, many interesting exhibits were included in the displays.
Alabin bequeathed to the museum his collections of paintings, arms, medals and coins. Inthe museum and the library moved into their own house on Dvoryanskaya St.
Since that time, the museum halls housed all kinds of art exhibitions. On behalf of the participants, the painter Golovkin donated some of the exhibited paintings to the city. Gradually, the rooms of the museum became too small to house all the exhibits. Inthe artists Golovkin, Mikhailov and Goundobin organized a society for the construction and support of the House of Science and Engineering. InGolovkin wrote an official letter, in which he informed the City Council that he had prepared the front and back elevation drawings and plans for the House of Science and Engineering and suggested building it with his own means.
The project was not realized. The museum possessed small but unique archaeological and numismatic collections, books, documents on the history of the land and paintings. Subsequently, the museum's collections were supplemented by historical and revolutionary materials and the exhibits of the Societies of Archaeology, History, Ethnography and Natural Science. Inthe museum was given the name of its founder, Petr Alabin. By its inauguration inthe library had comprised volumes in Russian, a lot of foreign books and periodicals.
Grott bequeathed his own book collection to the library. Alabin also assisted the library a great deal. By the 's, the library had possessed 50, books. Among them are such notables as: InPushkin passed through the Samara Region. During his journey, the poet was collecting information on the insurrection commanded by Pugachev for the book. The Story of Pugachev and the novel.
Pushkin did not visit Samara, but passed through the settlement of Smyshliayevka, which today lies within the city suburbs. Alexander Ostrovsky stayed in Samara in January-February Here, he finished his first comedy Bankrupt and read it for the first time to the public.
He had been condemned to spend eight years in prison for bis doubt in Stalin's talent as great thinker. In the summer ofSolzhenitsyn visited Samara, where he met and talked with his readers. He stayed in the village of Gavrilovka, the Buzuluk District now, the Alexeyevsky Districton the river Karalyk 85 miles from Samarawhere he took the koumiss cure. He wrote to his wife: The healthy climate and ordinary methods of housekeeping are also tempting. For the next ten years he came here with his family almost every year.
His favorite pursuits were fanning and horse-breeding. Stallions of various breeds were purchased. According to the writer's daughter, Tolstoy aimed at raising a mixed breed of the local steppe horse with the stalwart European ones.
Being in the Samara Region for the last time inTolstoy decided to sell his estate to the tenant peasants at the price that they would themselves suggest. The peasants, however, did not believe Tolstoy.