Primary Sources - Medieval and Renaissance Music - Research Guides at UCLA Library
Primary Sources in the English Language and Translation into the public domain; Online Medieval Source Bibliography This database . travel from libraries around the world and dating from the 13th to the 16th centuries. Primary Sources Early Music Online The Early Music Online project has digitised of the world's earliest surviving volumes of printed. Looking for Middle Ages - Renaissance Primary Sources? to an extensive collection of medical illustrations dating from the 6th to the 16th century This is an online collection of digitized copies of books, serials, pamphlets.
Italian Renaissance View of Florencebirthplace of the Renaissance Many argue that the ideas characterizing the Renaissance had their origin in late 13th-century Florencein particular with the writings of Dante Alighieri — and Petrarch —as well as the paintings of Giotto di Bondone — Some writers date the Renaissance quite precisely; one proposed starting point iswhen the rival geniuses Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi competed for the contract to build the bronze doors for the Baptistery of the Florence Cathedral Ghiberti won.
Yet it remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, and why it began when it did. Accordingly, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins. During the Renaissance, money and art went hand in hand. Artists depended entirely on patrons while the patrons needed money to foster artistic talent.
Wealth was brought to Italy in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries by expanding trade into Asia and Europe. Silver mining in Tyrol increased the flow of money.
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Luxuries from the Eastern world, brought home during the Crusadesincreased the prosperity of Genoa and Venice. Please improve the article or discuss the issue.Finding Primary Sources
June Coluccio Salutati In stark contrast to the High Middle Ageswhen Latin scholars focused almost entirely on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural science, philosophy and mathematics,  Renaissance scholars were most interested in recovering and studying Latin and Greek literary, historical, and oratorical texts. Ancient Greek works on science, maths and philosophy had been studied since the High Middle Ages in Western Europe and in the medieval Islamic world normally in translationbut Greek literary, oratorical and historical works such as Homer, the Greek dramatists, Demosthenes and Thucydides were not studied in either the Latin or medieval Islamic worlds; in the Middle Ages these sorts of texts were only studied by Byzantine scholars.
One of the greatest achievements of Renaissance scholars was to bring this entire class of Greek cultural works back into Western Europe for the first time since late antiquity. Arab logicians had inherited Greek ideas after they had invaded and conquered Egypt and the Levant. Their translations and commentaries on these ideas worked their way through the Arab West into Iberia and Sicilywhich became important centers for this transmission of ideas.
From the 11th to the 13th century, many schools dedicated to the translation of philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic to Medieval Latin were established in Iberia. Most notably the Toledo School of Translators.
This work of translation from Islamic culture, though largely unplanned and disorganized, constituted one of the greatest transmissions of ideas in history.
Italian Renaissance - Wikipedia
Social and political structures in Italy A political map of the Italian Peninsula circa The unique political structures of late Middle Ages Italy have led some to theorize that its unusual social climate allowed the emergence of a rare cultural efflorescence. Italy did not exist as a political entity in the early modern period.
Instead, it was divided into smaller city states and territories: Fifteenth-century Italy was one of the most urbanised areas in Europe. Linked to this was anti-monarchical thinking, represented in the famous early Renaissance fresco cycle Allegory of Good and Bad Government in Siena by Ambrogio Lorenzetti painted —whose strong message is about the virtues of fairness, justice, republicanism and good administration.
Holding both Church and Empire at bay, these city republics were devoted to notions of liberty. Skinner reports that there were many defences of liberty such as the Matteo Palmieri — celebration of Florentine genius not only in art, sculpture and architecture, but "the remarkable efflorescence of moral, social and political philosophy that occurred in Florence at the same time".
Although in practice these were oligarchicaland bore little resemblance to a modern democracythey did have democratic features and were responsive states, with forms of participation in governance and belief in liberty.
Merchants brought with them ideas from far corners of the globe, particularly the Levant. Venice was Europe's gateway to trade with the East, and a producer of fine glasswhile Florence was a capital of textiles. The wealth such business brought to Italy meant large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned and individuals had more leisure time for study. Black Death One theory that has been advanced is that the devastation in Florence caused by the Black Deathwhich hit Europe between andresulted in a shift in the world view of people in 14th-century Italy.
From France, Germany, and the Low Countries, through the medium of the Champagne fairsland and river trade routes brought goods such as woolwheatand precious metals into the region. The extensive trade that stretched from Egypt to the Baltic generated substantial surpluses that allowed significant investment in mining and agriculture.
Thus, while northern Italy was not richer in resources than many other parts of Europe, the level of development, stimulated by trade, allowed it to prosper. In particular, Florence became one of the wealthiest of the cities of Northern Italy, mainly due to its woolen textile production, developed under the supervision of its dominant trade guildthe Arte della Lana.
Wool was imported from Northern Europe and in the 16th century from Spain  and together with dyes from the east were used to make high quality textiles. The Italian trade routes that covered the Mediterranean and beyond were also major conduits of culture and knowledge.
The recovery of lost Greek classics and, to a lesser extent, Arab advancements on them following the Crusader conquest of the Byzantine heartlandsrevitalized medieval philosophy in the Renaissance of the 12th centuryjust as the refugee Byzantine scholars who migrated to Italy during and following the Turkish conquest of the Byzantines between the 12th and 15th centuries were important in sparking the new linguistic studies of the Renaissance, in newly created academies in Florence and Venice.
Humanist scholars searched monastic libraries for ancient manuscripts and recovered Tacitus and other Latin authors. The rediscovery of Vitruvius meant that the architectural principles of Antiquity could be observed once more, and Renaissance artists were encouraged, in the atmosphere of humanist optimism, to excel the achievements of the Ancients, like Apellesof whom they read.
Thirteenth-century[ edit ] In the 13th century, much of Europe experienced strong economic growth. The trade routes of the Italian states linked with those of established Mediterranean ports and eventually the Hanseatic League of the Baltic and northern regions of Europe to create a network economy in Europe for the first time since the 4th century. The city-states of Italy expanded greatly during this period and grew in power to become de facto fully independent of the Holy Roman Empire ; apart from the Kingdom of Naplesoutside powers kept their armies out of Italy.
During this period, the modern commercial infrastructure developed, with double-entry book-keepingjoint stock companiesan international banking system, a systematized foreign exchange marketinsuranceand government debt. The new mercantile governing class, who gained their position through financial skill, adapted to their purposes the feudal aristocratic model that had dominated Europe in the Middle Ages.
A feature of the High Middle Ages in Northern Italy was the rise of the urban communes which had broken from the control by bishops and local counts. In much of the region, the landed nobility was poorer than the urban patriarchs in the High Medieval money economy whose inflationary rise left land-holding aristocrats impoverished. The increase in trade during the early Renaissance enhanced these characteristics.
The decline of feudalism and the rise of cities influenced each other; for example, the demand for luxury goods led to an increase in trade, which led to greater numbers of tradesmen becoming wealthy, who, in turn, demanded more luxury goods.
Medieval and Renaissance Music
This change also gave the merchants almost complete control of the governments of the Italian city-states, again enhancing trade. One of the most important effects of this political control was security. Those that grew extremely wealthy in a feudal state ran constant risk of running afoul of the monarchy and having their lands confiscated, as famously occurred to Jacques Coeur in France.
The northern states also kept many medieval laws that severely hampered commerce, such as those against usuryand prohibitions on trading with non-Christians. In the city-states of Italy, these laws were repealed or rewritten. The Hundred Years' War between England and France disrupted trade throughout northwest Europe, most notably when, inKing Edward III of England repudiated his debts, contributing to the collapse of the two largest Florentine banks, those of the Bardi and Peruzzi.
In the east, war was also disrupting trade routes, as the Ottoman Empire began to expand throughout the region. Most devastating, though, was the Black Death that decimated the populations of the densely populated cities of Northern Italy and returned at intervals thereafter.