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One of the most prominent hallmarks of the expected climate change in Europe is the higher Received 14 January prevalence of longer and more intense periods of summer drought. To preserve European oak Accepted 14 March forests, of considerable importance for European economical and ecological development, Available online 23 March under these conditions knowledge on the mechanisms by which broad-leaved trees cope with drought is needed.
In this study the effect of one season of drought stress, corresponding in Keywords: Oak was investigated by monitoring phenotypical parameters, the analysis of carbohydrate Drought accumulation and a 2D-DIGE-based proteome study of leaves. Climate change In our experimental system, mimicking the conditions of a dry summer, the plants displayed Proteomics reduced growth, moreover the transition through the developmental stages was affected.
The 2D-DIGE data obtained during this study, supported by a separately published gene expression analysis Forest study, indicated that the oak tried to adapt its metabolism in order to maintain its full molecular functionality. Initially the plants seemed to be able to cope with the imposed stress.
However prolonged drought exposure overwhelmed the adaptive mechanisms and at the last sampling point of this study the molecular machinery succumbed.
Introduction propagation of the best adapted individuals, Darwinistic natural selection will allow annual plant species to adapt relatively fast Because sessile plants cannot apply the classic Fight-or-Flight to changing conditions.
However the short- to mid-term stress response of animals; therefore they utterly depend on survival of most forest tree species almost exclusively depends their ability to fine-tune their metabolism in order to cope with on the molecular flexibility encrypted in the genetic resources of changes in the environment in which they are rooted.
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The biotic the species. So not only the high temperatures, salinity and freezing, can cause water stress metabolism needs to be shifted to an alert state once an in plants. For the future the different climate models agree, environmental factor becomes limiting, but the opposite, although with a range of magnitude, that the predicted increase restoration of optimal productivity under better conditions, is of the Earth's surface temperature together with precipitation just as essential .
This will exacerbate the current otherwise weak fungal pathogens to overcome the plant situation wherein drought already has detrimental effects on defences [28,29].
Although the cause of the damage is not plant productivity in large geographical areas . Negative always clear, the decrease in undamaged oak crowns described effects of drought on our forest trees are not new phenomena. In by La Porta et al.
However, there remain large hiatuses in our knowledge of In the current study the proteome changes induced by long- drought tolerance, acclimation and molecular adaptations [6,7], term water deficit in Q. The vegetatively propagated and characterized at the biochemical molecular responses of plants to drought include the accumu- level for some years . To approach naturally occurring lation of osmoprotectants, the expression of protective proteins drought as much as possible the stress was imposed gradually to retain or restore the activity of the cellular machinery and by initially withholding water and maintaining the soil water decreasing growth.
So far not many studies, using transcrip- content at a low level afterwards . Leaves were collected and tomics and proteomics, have been done to characterize the used to accomplish a non-targeted proteome study. The responses of forest trees exposed to drought.
Existing studies observed differences in protein abundance were correlated mainly concentrate on the tree model species poplar [9—11]. Samples However, the effect of drought on the leaf proteome of Quercus from the same experiment were furthermore used in a species was studied [12,13].
Results obtained on short-living transcriptome study that is published separately . Materials and methods setup used. For instance molecular adaptation after applying drought instantly is different from the application of a more 2. Plant material and morphological parameters natural gradual decrease of water availability . Although the way plants perceive drought is not fully Five-year-old plants, oak clone P28 Q. The were used . The plants were grown in peat moss Einheit- increase in the osmolarity triggers this kinase.
The functional serde, Frux ED 63 in 20 L plastic containers in a greenhouse analysis of different ATHK1-mutants furthermore indicated where air temperature ambient and humidity are continuously that this protein is involved as upstream regulator in both ABA- monitored. A schematic of the experimental setup and pictures dependent and independent signalling pathways . Down- of the experiment are added as Supplemental Figure. The plants were manually watered and the soil water identified and characterized [18—20].
Pedunculate oak Quercus robur L. The and North Scandinavia . Natural oak stands are particularly volumetric soil moisture content was measured with a ThetaP- rich in biodiversity, adding ecological attributes to their robe ML2x FD-Probe Delta-T Devices, Cambridge, UK usually economical importance as sources of wood for construction or three times a week.
Detailed description of the conditions, soil heating. However due to the weak natural regeneration of oak water content, days after initiation treatment and developmen- forests and the appearance of new infections, the area covered tal stage of the control and drought-treated plants is given in and the survival of current oak forests in the next century are Supplemental Table 1A. The variable efficiency of reforestation efforts, by natural regeneration, direct seeding or planting, and the 2.
Plant development and sampling potential for economical losses associated with this, were discussed in recent publications [22,23]. Using dendrochronol- A scheme for describing the leaf developmental stages was ogy it was furthermore established that secondary growth and developed based on the BBCH  and scored on a scale of 1—10 thus productivity of Q.
Four samplings were done, the first two and in the previous years . Furthermore, the different oak three and eight days after the start of the drought treatment to species are under attack by different emerging diseases such as allow the recognition of early events when the plants are Sudden Oak Death and acute oak decline. It is now known that exposed to mild to very mild drought conditions. For the second one of the main factors that triggers the development of the flush samples were taken when the development of the leaves, symptoms of Sudden Oak Death is drought and irregular not the flush, was estimated the same as the samplings of flush precipitation .
The changes induced by drought allow the 1. The methods used for the extraction Hercules, California, U. Although during preliminary per strip. Images were analyzed using of oak leaves as was previously observed [36,37]. The limited the Decyder v6.
A Two-Way availability of samples excluded the option of using a new ANOVA with time point of sampling as one factor and treatment extraction protocol on a set of samples representative for the as second factor was performed. All spots with a significant experiment.
Therefore a second, hot analysis and submitted to MS-based identification. After a Log10 transformation on the relative abundance Extraction 1: To the pellet of the first extraction mg the stress treatment as fixed factors.
Mass spectrometry and protein identification phosphate pH 7 and 0.
The protein content of these extracts database searches with an in-house MASCOT platform Matrix and the average number of spots detected on the gel images from Science, www. Ninety following parameters were defined: When high quality spectra were not matched to 12 sequences, a sequence was determined manually and in the 10 current data set could be linked to the identified protein by allowing for more missed cleavages or semitryptic peptides.
When the same protein 4 was identified in different spots, the corresponding MS peak 3 17 31 45 59 Days after the start of the drought treatment lists were extracted and used to find unique peaks for each spot applying SPECLUST  as was recently done for banana .
Control indicated in red, 3. Results and discussion drought-exposed plants indicated in blue. These differences become observable only during the second flush. Drought-exposed plants passed through the developmental sugars and the time points are in agreement with previous stages slower than control ones Fig. In order to compare studies on the accumulation of osmoprotectants in trees [48— leaves from plants in the same developmental stage sampling III 50].
In a study on oak the accumulation of both glucose and and IV second flush for the stressed trees had to be delayed by fructose was observed , however the nearly 2-fold decrease 3 weeks relative to the control trees Fig.
In a study on the in sucrose content after three weeks of drought exposure was impact of temperature on the development of Q. Contrary to this, in a study on Quercus prinus L. In this study by Morin et al. Nonethe- 4 Control less, developmental delay and a decrease in primary produc- Glucose tion, at the individual and the forest level, is one of the classic 3,5 Fructose symptoms of drought stress in trees. A more than 2,5 fold decrease in shoot growth and a significant decreased increment in stem diameter, 2 cm increase in stem diameter in 2 control trees and less than 1.
At the last sampling point these concentrations are 0,5 I II III IV approximately 4 times higher for fructose and more than 2 times Sampling higher for glucose and galactose. The disaccharide sucrose only Flush 1 Flush 2 accumulates during the second flush in the stressed plants. Although a previous study indicates that a shift in leaf—root Fig. The spot numbering corresponds to the numbering used in Table 2 and in Supplemental Tables 2 and 3.
The experimental evidence results sucrose accumulation only started later in the season. We were interested in highlight- data on its accumulation during drought exposure is scarce ing protein abundance changes directly related to drought only nonetheless a significant accumulation was measured in Populus 18 with a significant score for the factor treatment in the Two- euphratica . Thirty-three of the Table 1 — Summary of all statistically significant spots using the tools described in the Materials and Methods section.
For those time points that both the ratio in relative abundance is below 0. Control data is indicated in red and data from stressed plants in blue. For the spots and the change in direction of the relative spot intensity during the two flushes are more spot or less spot similar between control and treated samples.
The direction of change in relative intensity of spot 30 for treated samples is completely different from that of control samples and furthermore completely different between the first control and treated change in the same direction and the second flush.
For spot 30 the Three-Way ANOVA as described in the Materials and methods section resulted in a significant p-value, hence the spot was retaken in Table 2 and the biological analysis.
When the analysis is limited to By looking at the expression data it became apparent that the 41 spots that changed significantly according to the criteria some proteins did not change significantly in the pairwise discussed above Table 2it is remarkable that one third of the comparison but nonetheless showed a distinct behaviour in a group of 33 proteins excluding spots wherein more than 1 comparison of the first and the second flushes of stressed versus protein was identified is involved in carbon fixation To identify the significant changes illustrated in group of proteins involved in photosynthesis 3 or carbohydrate Fig.
There was a furthermore no pathways that are highlighted in our data by significant change in Log10 Rel Abundance in the interaction analogous changes in the abundance of several functionally with the three fixed factors for 25 spots Supplemental Table 3linked proteins. Nonetheless, some significant observations can the majority of which was already identified as changing be made.
The 41 proteins that were found drought stressed plants. At the molecular weight given in Table 2, complete identification data are given in where the RuBisCo large chain is expected to be it has been Supplemental Table 2 and all statistical data in Supplemental identified in several spots spots andspots that decrease Table 3. Apart from the two spots that change significantly, several spots wherein two proteins are identified, are involved in carbon other spots of increasing intensity contained degradation prod- fixation.
Another 25 out of 95 include proteins involved in ucts of the RuBisCo large chain. These spots include the spots photosynthesis 13 out of 95 or other metabolic processes and with an expression pattern very similar to the one involving carbohydrates 12 out of Twenty of the identified of spots and Supplemental Tables 2 and 3.
A similar proteins are directly involved in the folding 7 or metabolism of degradation of RuBisCo during exposure to abiotic stress is for proteins 6 or amino acids 7. The two other functional groups instance previously described for rice exposed to chilling stress that have more than 1 representative are proteins involved in .
RuBisCo degradation is important in different physiological stress responses 7 in total; 1 involved in the response to heat; 2 states of a plant and is particularly well studied in senescence . In our data different arguments against the hypothesis that the down regulated during induced senescence , increase or do trees in this study are subject to a massive net-degradation of not decrease significantly.
In literature there are two other RuBisCo, as seen during senescence, can be found. Firstly, the possibilities for increased RuBisCo degradation described, direct significant increase of the intensity of the spot containing ROS-induced degradation by reactive oxygen species generated RuBisCo small chain spot suggests that the plants are in the active site of RuBisCo or the degradation and replacement trying to cope with the stress. The same observation was made of deactivated RuBisCo.
Direct evidence for neither mechanism during the gene expression analysis . Secondly, spots contain- can be obtained from our data but both are possible. Exposure to A-genome is potentially linked with the higher drought tolerance drought is known to induce oxidative stress in oak trees [57,58], of plants containing the B-genome . Based on the data, we can and the higher abundance of the protective enzyme peroxir- consider that there are 2 phases in our experiment: In a second phase flush 2indicates that ROS levels are high in the chloroplasts and that the plants are exposed to severe and long-term stress conditions RuBisCo oxidation might occur.
One protease involved in and the abundance of ASR decreases.