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Sound base or soundbar? There are broadly two types of soundbar available. Slim soundbars, which sit either under your wall-mounted TV or under a TV stand, and sound bases, which act as a stand for your TV as well as a soundbar. Sound bases can look a tad large and unwieldy, but do deliver great sound. Subwoofers Most soundbars come with the option to add a subwoofer speaker to create an immersive, 5. This can be great to building up the surround sound from your TV, however this will significantly add to the price.
For added sound you can get a subwoofer, although this adds to the cost Credit: Other key points Bluetooth: Not all soundbars come with Bluetooth connectivity and may instead connect with wireless. Some soundbars come with remote controls, others pair with your TV remote. They require some custom retuning, but can be highly playable when serviced in our workshop.
The maple instruments are somewhat darker and more covered in tone, whereas the plumwood instruments are lighter and brighter in tone and develop a considerable reediness after they are played in. Both the maple and plumwood instruments are ideal for playing renaissance consort music, but the Kynsecker plumwood models are also ideally suited for playing the extensive early 17th century Italian baroque solo literature and the van Eyck solo pieces.
Two different tenor recorders are offered in this series: The Mollenhauer Dream recorders in pearwood are relatively inexpensive wide-bore neo-renaissance recorders; they are a viable substitute for the more authentic Kynsecker models at a much lower price point. The even newer Dream plumwood models are appreciably more expensive than the pearwood models, but have a great deal more handwork in their production, and offer substantially improved performance over the pearwood models.
The Mollenhauer Waldorf-Edition recorders are also modern wide-bore neo-renaissance recorders with a very plain exterior profile; they are an ideal choice for players on a limited budget who want to specialize in renaissance consort repertoire.
Back to Top of Page Baroque Recorders There are many surviving original late baroque recorders in museum and private collections by a fair number of well-known eighteenth century continental and English makers such as Denner, Stanesby, Oberlender, and Bressan. These instruments, in comparison to the earlier renaissance-type recorders in use until the mid-seventeenth century, have much narrower, more sharply conical bores, smaller tone holes, and extremely narrow, highly arched windways.
The tone of these instruments is relatively quiet, usually quite reedy and complex, and varies in timbre and volume from the low through the middle and high registers. They are extremely sensitive to subtle articulation and develop highly individual characters. They are excellent solo instruments, contrasting greatly with other baroque woodwind, string, or keyboard instruments, but are not well-suited to recorder consort playing because of their individuality and lack of blending properties.
The alto recorder was the predominant size in this period, and the other sizes were used only occasionally. Most advanced players own and treasure one or more baroque solo alto recorders for the authentic performance of the sonata and concerto repertoire of the early eighteenth century. We offer many different models of reproduction and non-reproduction baroque recorders.
Because of the elaborate turning, complex widway design, and large amount of handwork required in finishing these instruments, baroque recorders tend to be considerably more expensive than renaissance or modern recorders. They may be played at lower breath pressures than most other baroque style instruments. The Mollenhauer reproduction Denner recorders not to be confused with their modern Denner series instruments have a wonderfully rich and complex sound, modest in volume but extremely sensuous and resonant.
The Fehr Stanesby alto is unusually full-toned for a reproduction baroque instrument, yet gentle and sweet; it is extremely well-suited for baroque orchestral playing or performance in large halls where quieter instruments might not be heard.
It has a fuller low register than most other baroque altos, and a quiet, subtle upper register. The custom-made late baroque instruments from the workshop of Stephan Blezinger are very full in volume and project well in larger venues without sacrificing the rich, complex tone quality of a reproduction instrument. The tonal influence of the type of wood used seems greater in baroque than in modern instruments, and each model and wood type has a distinctive personality.
If your tastes are very specific as to tonal and response characteristics, we suggest that you call and discuss your wishes with us at length. We have a large selection of reproduction instruments in stock and have had a great deal of experience helping players find just the right instrument. Modern recorders are extremely diverse in tone and playing qualities, but it is possible to draw a few generalizations about them: On the other hand, they may be played for longer periods of time and are far less prone to clogging if correctly designed and voiced, and they do not require as much care and attention.
Perhaps most important, they require less effort and control on the part of the player and tend to be far more forgiving of a wide spectrum of playing techniques and styles. Whereas historical recorders are more player-dependent and require considerable experience and skill to produce optimum results, modern recorders have more of the performance built into the instrument, are therefore more reliable and less dependent on the ability of the player.
Most modern recorders are equally suited to both ensemble and solo use; they are the ideal instrument for a player who does not want to acquire a number of highly specialized literature-specific reproduction instruments for early music but rather one all-purpose recorder which can be used successfully for all literature.
The large number of modern recorders we stock are greatly varied in appearance and playing qualities. The instruments from our three Swiss suppliers are uniformly excellent in wood quality and workmanship; the several joints of each instrument are made from one continuous piece of wood, insuring uniformity not only of grain and color but also tonal properties. There were as many as ten different choices of wood for each model in the past, but the number of wood choices has been greatly reduced in recent years and they are now available only in a few of the more expensive tropical hardwoods.
These instruments often appeal to players of modern woodwind or brass instruments. The Fehr Model IV and Huber Model III instruments are quite similar to one another, each having a full, bright, clear tone and superb high register response; the Fehr recorders are somewhat fuller in the middle and low register and freer-blowing, whereas the Huber recorders are slightly tighter and more resistant.
The styles of these two outstanding makers seem to be becoming more and more alike in recent years, however. They are both outstanding all-purpose mainstream modern recorders and well suited to baroque solo literature as well as consort use. The German and Dutch workshops produce instruments which are in general good but less outstanding in wood quality and workmanship than the above Swiss makers; they are also somewhat less expensive, however.
With custom servicing, these instruments can be made to play extremely well and provide good value for money. The instruments by Conrad Mollenhauer, however, have been vastly improved in design and quality over the past two decades and now offer the same quality as the Swiss makers at a much lower price point. The Mollenhauer Denner series was previously, under the Flauto Dolce name, rather warm, covered, and flute-like in tone quality but was redesigned to produce a brighter, more focused tone and far better upper register response.
They have a fair amount of reediness and complexity, a compact low register, are rather quiet in tone, and well suited to the performance of baroque music.
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They do, however, provide very good quality and value and can be a good choice for the beginning student. Easily among the best bargains in modern wooden recorders is the small number of models produced by the Japanese maker Zen-On. These instruments, each size available only in a single wood choice, have been recently redesigned and are now competive in quality with those from the European makers and at a far more attractive price as well.
The cherrywood keyed tenor and the two models bocal and direct blow of bass recorders provide outstanding quality at extremely low prices. Choice Of Wood The choice of wood does have a definite and predictable influence on tone, although the overall bore and windway design and the voicing of the individual instrument are far more important factors. The influence of the wood is due not to the hardness or density of the wood per se, as is generally believed, but rather to the fiber structure and porosity, which determine the relative roughness or smoothness of the bore.
In general, softer, less dense woods yield a rougher bore surface, which produces a warmer, more covered and diffuse tone.
Harder and denser woods permit a smoother, more highly polished bore surface and produce a brighter, clearer, and more centered tone quality with greater projection. A good rule of thumb is that the softer woods are less expensive, and the cost of the wood increases with hardness. There are two exceptions to this rule, however: The softest and warmest sounding woods are the domestic European fruitwoods: Pearwood is the most gentle-toned and covered sounding, whereas the other three have a trace of brightness around a soft core.
Instruments of maple are somewhat fuller, louder, and darker, but windier and less refined than any of the fruitwoods. Fruitwood instruments tend to become brighter with use over a period of years, whereas maple instruments, after the initial break-in period, apparently do not. Haldu is a brownish yellow wood from India with tonal properties very similar to plumwood. Boxwood is a popular term for a variety of woods from many different countries which have very little in common except for their pale yellow color.
The boxwood used by 18th century makers was either English, European, or the closely-related Turkish boxwood, prized for its hardness, tonal quality, and resistance to water. This wood is only occasionally used today, not just because of its rarity and high cost but also because it often has knot holes and tends to warp very easily as it ages.
Most instruments from European makers labeled as boxwood are in fact made from a South American wood known variously as Maracaibo, Zapatero, or Venezuelan boxwood, which is plentiful and inexpensive, easy to work, highly stable, but softer and blander in tonal properties than true European boxwood. South American boxwood is intermediate in cost and tonal quality between the softer European domestic fruitwoods and maple on one hand and the denser exotic tropical hardwoods on the other; it has a clear, cool, neutral sound equally suited to solo or ensemble playing.
These either mute the strings or alter their timbre.
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A harpsichord -like sound can be produced by placing or dangling small metal buttons in front of the hammer. Adding an eraser between the bass strings produces a mellow, thumpy sound reminiscent of the plucked double bass.
Inserting metal screws or washers can cause the piano to make a jangly sound as these metal items vibrate against the strings.
The wires were replaced by metal bars of different alloys that replicated the standard wires when played. Electric, electronic, and digital Wurlitzer electric piano The first electric pianos from the late s used metal strings with a magnetic pickupan amplifier and a loudspeaker.
The electric pianos that became most popular in pop and rock music in the s and s, such as the Fender Rhodes use metal tines in place of strings and use electromagnetic pickups similar to those on an electric guitar. The resulting electrical, analogue signal can then be amplified with a keyboard amplifier or electronically manipulated with effects units.
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Electric pianos are rarely used in classical music, where the main usage of them is as inexpensive rehearsal or practice instruments in music schools. However, electric pianos, particularly the Fender Rhodesbecame important instruments in s funk and jazz fusion and in some rock music genres. Electronic pianos are non-acoustic; they do not have strings, tines or hammers, but are a type of synthesizer that simulates or imitates piano sounds using oscillators and filters that synthesize the sound of an acoustic piano.
Alternatively, a person can practice an electronic piano with headphones to avoid disturbing others.
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Digital pianos are also non-acoustic and do not have strings or hammers. They use digital sampling technology to reproduce the acoustic sound of each piano note accurately. They also must be connected to a power amplifier and speaker to produce sound however, most digital pianos have a built-in amp and speaker.
Alternatively, a person can practice with headphones to avoid disturbing others. Digital pianos can include sustain pedals, weighted or semi-weighted keys, multiple voice options e. MIDI inputs and outputs connect a digital piano to other electronic instruments or musical devices. For example, a digital piano's MIDI out signal could be connected by a patch cord to a synth modulewhich would allow the performer to use the keyboard of the digital piano to play modern synthesizer sounds.
Early digital pianos tended to lack a full set of pedals but the synthesis software of later models such as the Yamaha Clavinova series synthesised the sympathetic vibration of the other strings such as when the sustain pedal is depressed and full pedal sets can now be replicated. The processing power of digital pianos has enabled highly realistic pianos using multi-gigabyte piano sample sets with as many as ninety recordings, each lasting many seconds, for each key under different conditions e.
Additional samples emulate sympathetic resonance of the strings when the sustain pedal is depressed, key release, the drop of the dampers, and simulations of techniques such as re-pedalling.
The MIDI file records the physics of a note rather than its resulting sound and recreates the sounds from its physical properties e. Computer based software, such as Modartt's Pianoteqcan be used to manipulate the MIDI stream in real time or subsequently to edit it.
This type of software may use no samples but synthesize a sound based on aspects of the physics that went into the creation of a played note. Hybrid instruments The Yamaha Disklavier player piano. In the s, some pianos include an acoustic grand piano or upright piano combined with MIDI electronic features. Such a piano can be played acoustically, or the keyboard can be used as a MIDI controllerwhich can trigger a synthesizer module or music sampler. Some electronic feature-equipped pianos such as the Yamaha Disklavier electronic player pianointroduced inare outfitted with electronic sensors for recording and electromechanical solenoids for player piano -style playback.
On playback, the solenoids move the keys and pedals and thus reproduce the original performance. Disklaviers have been manufactured in the form of upright, baby grand, and grand piano styles including a nine-foot concert grand. Reproducing systems have ranged from relatively simple, playback-only models to professional models that can record performance data at resolutions that exceed the limits of normal MIDI data. This is especially true of the outer rim. It is most commonly made of hardwoodtypically hard maple or beechand its massiveness serves as an essentially immobile object from which the flexible soundboard can best vibrate.
According to Harold A. Conklin,  the purpose of a sturdy rim is so that, " Theodore Steinway in to reduce manufacturing time and costs. Previously, the rim was constructed from several pieces of solid wood, joined and veneered, and European makers used this method well into the 20th century. The metal rod at lower right is a humidity control device. The thick wooden posts on the underside grands or back uprights of the piano stabilize the rim structure, and are made of softwood for stability.
The requirement of structural strength, fulfilled by stout hardwood and thick metal, makes a piano heavy. It is made of hardwood typically hard maple or beechand is laminated for strength, stability and longevity. Piano strings also called piano wirewhich must endure years of extreme tension and hard blows, are made of high carbon steel. They are manufactured to vary as little as possible in diameter, since all deviations from uniformity introduce tonal distortion.
The bass strings of a piano are made of a steel core wrapped with copper wire, to increase their mass whilst retaining flexibility. If all strings throughout the piano's compass were individual monochordthe massive bass strings would overpower the upper ranges.
Makers compensate for this with the use of double bichord strings in the tenor and triple trichord strings throughout the treble. Cast iron plate of a grand piano The plate harpor metal frame, of a piano is usually made of cast iron. A massive plate is advantageous. Since the strings vibrate from the plate at both ends, an insufficiently massive plate would absorb too much of the vibrational energy that should go through the bridge to the soundboard.
While some manufacturers use cast steel in their plates, most prefer cast iron. Cast iron is easy to cast and machine, has flexibility sufficient for piano use, is much more resistant to deformation than steel, and is especially tolerant of compression.
Plate casting is an art, since dimensions are crucial and the iron shrinks about one percent during cooling. Including an extremely large piece of metal in a piano is potentially an aesthetic handicap.
Piano makers overcome this by polishing, painting, and decorating the plate. Plates often include the manufacturer's ornamental medallion.
In an effort to make pianos lighter, Alcoa worked with Winter and Company piano manufacturers to make pianos using an aluminum plate during the s. Aluminum piano plates were not widely accepted, and were discontinued.
The numerous parts of a piano action are generally made from hardwoodsuch as maplebeechand hornbeamhowever, since World War II, makers have also incorporated plastics.