IMPORTANCE RELATIVE .. exécuter; appliquer; réaliser; accomplir; mettre à effet; rendre effectif; traduire en actes; concrétiser joindre le geste à la parole (? ). The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date. Keywords: Rhetoric to Alexander, Aristotle's Rhetoric, relative dating, losophy , which consists in proceeding by definition, division, and illustration. To justify.
The design of the survey Competence cannot be measured directly, but only through product and process analysis, i.
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Text analysis, however, can only suggest the skills and knowledge that translators apply when they translate; it cannot rank them in order of importance.
Process analysis, meanwhile, is not practical on a large scale as a research method. The remaining way to find out about the skills and knowledge used in IGO translation is to consult the people with the greatest first-hand experience in using and observing their application and repercussions and hence the greatest awareness of their relative importance to the organization.
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A survey was therefore chosen as the data collection tool. First, a questionnaire was designed for translators, revisers and heads of IGO translation services in which they would be asked to rate, on a five-point Likert scale, the impact that different skills and knowledge types have on the effectiveness of the translations produced by the organization.
This will be referred to as the impact questionnaire and it can be found in Annex 1. As input for translator training or preparation for work at IGOs, the ranking of skills and knowledge types by respondents to the impact questionnaire is useful. To identify recruitment priorities, however, the findings would need to be correlated with data on the relative scarcity of these same skills and knowledge types among new recruits.
A high-impact skill or knowledge type that was already being found in abundance through current recruitment procedures e. A second questionnaire was therefore designed for revisers and heads of IGO translation services, as those most familiar with the skills and knowledge of new recruits self-report data on supposedly former shortcomings being interesting but less valuable.
It asks them to rate, also on a five-point Likert scale, the frequency with which new recruits lack different skills and knowledge types. This will be referred to as the recruits questionnaire and it can be found in Annex 2. The list of skills and types of knowledge presented for rating in both questionnaires was drawn up on the basis of the broad categories identified in the literature on translation competence and the specific skills and knowledge suggested by the review of the literature on IGO translation, as well as on the basis of the feedback from the two pilots that were conducted at one IGO prior to the survey.
Two revisers participated in the first pilot, and three translators and four revisers in the second. The base list of 40 skills and knowledge types presented for rating in the questionnaires is given below. It should be borne in mind that the purpose of the study was to obtain a hierarchy of skills and knowledge types as input for the design of text-based translation tests.
Consequently, the level of specificity for the text-production skills is greater than for other types of skill, and interpersonal and other skills and knowledge types that do not lend themselves to text-based testing were excluded.
The numbers alongside each skill or knowledge type are those used to identify them in the research. Short descriptions are used for the sake of space. For the full descriptions used in the questionnaires, see Annex 1 or 2. Also for convenience, the following acronyms have been used: The ability to 15 produce idiomatic translations, 16 produce translations that flow smoothly even when the ST does not, 17 select and combine words in the target language to capture the exact and detailed meanings nuances of the ST, 20 convey the ST message clearly, 21 convey the intended effect of the ST, 25 tailor language to the reader, 22 achieve the right tone and register, 19 produce an elegantly written target text regardless of how elegantly written the source text is, 18 recast sentences in the target language to say the same thing in different waysand 27 ensure the completeness of the TT; Research skills: The ability to track down sources to: Respondents were also asked in both questionnaires to report and rate any other skills or types of knowledge not presented in the base list.
Questions on text-processing responsibilities, editing and revision practice were included to contextualize findings about some of the skills and knowledge types. Being able to create pie charts in Excel is of little importance, for example, if translation services have a graphic design department that does it for them. And the importance of being able to translate poorly written originals depends on how systematically source texts are edited.
Direct questions to obtain information on the expectations of new recruits at the IGOs were also included to contextualize the findings for the purposes of recruitment test design. A high frequency rating in the recruits questionnaire i.
Knowledge of the organization and in-house spelling rules, for example, can usually be mastered on the job. IAMLADP is a forum and network of managers of international organizations employing conference and language service providers, mainly translators and interpreters.
The questionnaires were prepared in electronic format and sent out in February Respondents received an e-mail inviting them to complete the questionnaires online, and data were collected over a period of three months. The sample population was relatively homogeneous inasmuch as the respondents worked in the same domain, had similar academic profiles and had all passed similar recruitment examinations.
The final realized sample included completed impact questionnaires, of which were usable, and completed recruits questionnaires, of which were usable.Relative Dating
The answers from all the usable questionnaires were included in the analysis. The impact questionnaire was completed by 7 heads of unit, 27 revisers and translators from over 24 bodies of the United Nations UNthe European Union EU and other organizations. The recruits questionnaire was completed by revisers and 25 heads of service from over 20 bodies of the United Nations, the European Union and other IGOs.
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The results of the questionnaires 3. The results of the impact questionnaire: Ratings were awarded in response to the question: For the purposes of this survey, effective translations are those that achieve the communicative aims of the organization and protect its image. How large is the impact of the following skills and knowledge types on the effectiveness of translations at your organization? Descriptions of skills and knowledge have been abbreviated for the sake of space.
For the full descriptions, see the impact questionnaire in Annex 1. Being able to express ideas clearly in the target language and having sound knowledge of the source language are also unsurprisingly rated as highly important assets. Possibly more unexpected is the fact that analytical skills are among those rated as being highly important mean rating of 4.
The ability to work out obscure passages in the source text and the ability to detect inconsistencies, contradictions, nonsense, unintended ambiguities, misleading headings, etc.
This may be explained by the need to translate unedited source texts.
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The importance of being able to maintain quality even when working under pressure of time ranked 12th reflects another common aspect of IGO translation work, especially when servicing meetings. It should be noted that even the skills and knowledge types at the bottom end of the ranking produced by the impact questionnaire are not considered unimportant. On a scale ofa rating of 3 or more suggests the skill or knowledge type is at least of some importance.
This applies to 38 of the 40 included in the list. In other words the vast majority of skills and knowledge types presented for rating were considered to have an impact of the effectiveness of IGO translation work. The hierarchy reflects the opinions of translators, revisers and heads of unit working in over 20 translation services.
As such it provides an indication of the relative importance that professional translators working for inter-governmental organizations collectively attach to the skills and knowledge required on the job. As Kelly notes, professional considerations are one of the factors that should define the learning objectives of training programmes Kelly This information could therefore be of interest to translators thinking of working for IGOs and translator training institutions.
The fact that knowing how to spell correctly is apparently more important than being able to work with translation memory software, for example, may come as a slight surprise, as might the low ranking of cultural knowledge. The additional skills and knowledge reported in the impact questionnaire as being needed on the job: The responses provide several insights into the nature of translation work at IGOs today.
The skills and knowledge types that, according to the survey participants, are required in addition to the 40 included in the ranking can be loosely grouped as shown below. Communication skills to be able to elicit assistance or answers from others in the organization, especially authors of source texts 11 Ability to work with revisers: There were also complaints about the restrictions imposed by tradition and conventions.
This was ranked only 29th by respondents across all organizations, possibly revealing the prime importance of this knowledge in some organizations rated 5 by 70 respondents but not in others.
A number of respondents said they had nothing to add and commented on the comprehensiveness of the list of skills and knowledge types presented for rating. Some took the opportunity to sum up what they thought translators at IGOs need. One EU translator wrote: The results of the recruits questionnaire: Due to that discovery, Smith was able to recognize the order that the rocks were formed. Sixteen years after his discovery, he published a geological map of England showing the rocks of different geologic time eras.
Principles of relative dating[ edit ] Methods for relative dating were developed when geology first emerged as a natural science in the 18th century. Geologists still use the following principles today as a means to provide information about geologic history and the timing of geologic events.
Uniformitarianism[ edit ] The principle of Uniformitarianism states that the geologic processes observed in operation that modify the Earth's crust at present have worked in much the same way over geologic time.
In geology, when an igneous intrusion cuts across a formation of sedimentary rockit can be determined that the igneous intrusion is younger than the sedimentary rock. There are a number of different types of intrusions, including stocks, laccolithsbatholithssills and dikes. Cross-cutting relationships[ edit ] Cross-cutting relations can be used to determine the relative ages of rock strata and other geological structures.
The principle of cross-cutting relationships pertains to the formation of faults and the age of the sequences through which they cut. Faults are younger than the rocks they cut; accordingly, if a fault is found that penetrates some formations but not those on top of it, then the formations that were cut are older than the fault, and the ones that are not cut must be younger than the fault. Finding the key bed in these situations may help determine whether the fault is a normal fault or a thrust fault.
For example, in sedimentary rocks, it is common for gravel from an older formation to be ripped up and included in a newer layer.
A similar situation with igneous rocks occurs when xenoliths are found.
These foreign bodies are picked up as magma or lava flows, and are incorporated, later to cool in the matrix. As a result, xenoliths are older than the rock which contains them. Original horizontality[ edit ] The principle of original horizontality states that the deposition of sediments occurs as essentially horizontal beds.
Observation of modern marine and non-marine sediments in a wide variety of environments supports this generalization although cross-bedding is inclined, the overall orientation of cross-bedded units is horizontal. This is because it is not possible for a younger layer to slip beneath a layer previously deposited.
This principle allows sedimentary layers to be viewed as a form of vertical time line, a partial or complete record of the time elapsed from deposition of the lowest layer to deposition of the highest bed. As organisms exist at the same time period throughout the world, their presence or sometimes absence may be used to provide a relative age of the formations in which they are found.
Based on principles laid out by William Smith almost a hundred years before the publication of Charles Darwin 's theory of evolutionthe principles of succession were developed independently of evolutionary thought. The principle becomes quite complex, however, given the uncertainties of fossilization, the localization of fossil types due to lateral changes in habitat facies change in sedimentary strataand that not all fossils may be found globally at the same time.
As a result, rocks that are otherwise similar, but are now separated by a valley or other erosional feature, can be assumed to be originally continuous. Layers of sediment do not extend indefinitely; rather, the limits can be recognized and are controlled by the amount and type of sediment available and the size and shape of the sedimentary basin.
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Sediment will continue to be transported to an area and it will eventually be deposited. However, the layer of that material will become thinner as the amount of material lessens away from the source. Often, coarser-grained material can no longer be transported to an area because the transporting medium has insufficient energy to carry it to that location.
In its place, the particles that settle from the transporting medium will be finer-grained, and there will be a lateral transition from coarser- to finer-grained material. The lateral variation in sediment within a stratum is known as sedimentary facies.
If sufficient sedimentary material is available, it will be deposited up to the limits of the sedimentary basin.