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The shamans participated in the carving which was used in observations of the stars and in part of the Chumash calendar. European contact[ edit ] Europeans first visited the Chumash in They were met by sailing vessels under the command of Juan Cabrillo.
Anthropologists, historians, and other scholars have long been interested in documenting the collision of cultures that accompanied the European exploration and settlement of the Americas. They founded colonies, bringing in missionaries to begin Christianizing Native Americans in the region. Due to the large mission and Christian influence, Chumash villages began moving to many missions springing up along the coast.
The settlement of the Spanish may have also devastated the Chumash culture. Some sources, nevertheless, cite the Spanish keeping good faith with the Chumash, sharing knowledge and various productive techniques with them.
It is also believed that the Chumash simply disappeared as a result of displacement; due to lack of centralized population, which in turn lowers reproduction, or birth rates.
The Chumash reservation, established inencompasses acres. Today, the Chumash are estimated to have a population of 5, members. Many current members can trace their ancestors to the five islands of Channel Island National Park.
There are 14 bands of Chumash Indians. The Coastal band of the Chumash Nation applied for recognition in Their historical lands are now part of Vandenberg Air Force Base.
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Los Angeles Chumash, formed when members of the traditional Malibu, Tejon, and Ventura bands were relocated in the 19th century. Malibu Chumash, from the coast of Malibu. Monterey Chumash, from the Monterey peninsula. Samala, or Santa Ynez Chumash. The Santa Ynez Chumash people in went to federal court to regain more land. Tecuya Chumash, most of this band of Chumash tribe were probably Kagismuwas.
This band was established as an anti-colonial group, who took residence in the Tecuya Canyon along with the Tejon Chumash.
Tejon is the Spanish word for "badger," and its name was given to the Tejon Rancheria. Ventura Chumash, lives in the traditional Chumash domain of the Owl Clan. Population of Native California Estimates for the precontact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially.
The anthropologist Alfred L. Kroeber thought the population of the Chumash might have been about 10, Brown concluded that the population was about 15, Cookat various times, estimated the aboriginal Chumash as 8, 13, 20, or 18, The Chumash appear to have been thriving in the late 18th century, when Spaniards first began actively colonizing the California coast.
Whether the deaths began earlier with the contacts with ships' crews or later with the construction of several Spanish missions at Ventura, Santa Barbara, Lompoc, Santa Ynez, and San Luis Obispo, the Chumash were eventually devastated by Old World diseases such as influenza and smallpoxto which they had no immunological resistance.
Bytheir numbers had declined to justwhile current estimates of Chumash people today range from 2,  to 5, One aspect of interest is the 'Aqi gender of the Chumash. The 'aqi gender appears to also be closely tied to non-procreative sexual activity, such as homosexuality.
For example, rock shelters with clay structures containing burials likely indicating ancestral recognition are present in the Bandiagara cliffs of Mali in the latter centuries bce, 46 and possible mortuary sites in Komaland in northern Ghana indicate rituals involving terracotta figurines with libation in the mid- to late 1st millennium ce. It was economically generalized, with evidence for farming with garden huntingherding, poultry production, shea butter production, potting, and iron metallurgy.
Around ce, a second identical homestead was founded to the north, followed by a third shortly thereafter. Around ce, differentiation and centralization increased in the archaeological record of the site, as new houses clustered around Mound 4, and the founding house controlled specialized and ritually potent iron production and cattle wealth.
By early Red II c. Differentiation in house identities is also indicated by divergent pottery styles between houses over time.
Here, society became more complex as it became decentralized. In addition, at Kirikongo in comparison with neighboring regions, evidence for long-distance trade is limited to cowrie shells that could have been obtained through down-the-line processes, with political power derived from local divine sources. Interestingly, if Kirikongo is representative, diverse pathways to horizontal complexity may be indicated in the ethnohistoric record of western Burkina Faso and neighboring parts of Mali, Ivory Coast, and Ghana, where different societies have found novel ways to distribute power and avoid intergenerational transfers in wealth e.
In addition to creating the complex mortuary sites mentioned above, these communities maintained trade connections to societies throughout the greater region and developed extensive iron-working traditions. As indicated in the Upper Niger and Senegal River systems and the late adoption of agriculture in the Gobnangou, highland locations in the 1st millennium ce throughout West Africa may have been occupied by foragers who likely played a role in interregional economies.
Similarly late agricultural adoptions are found all along the sedimentary highlands that continue from northern Benin to Gambaga in northern Ghana. Eastern Niger Bend Trade and Early Islamic Connections With increasing aridity in the Sahara, herders with early domestic millet settled in the Tilemsi Valley of the eastern Niger Bend starting in the 3rd millennium bce.
Here, archaeological data indicate more intensive interregional connections in the 1st millennium ce, perhaps reflecting early trans-Saharan trade routes. Social differentiation marked by unequal access to valued goods, including long-distance trade items, is indicated in early village communities settled around the seasonal ponds at Kissi, Oursi, and Saouga in northern Burkina Faso starting in the early 1st millennium ce. Residents inhabited dispersed house-compounds, grew millet and kept livestock, and buried their dead in cemeteries.
At the Kissi cemetery, individuals were interred with locally produced iron weapons and jewelry, clay beads, imported copper, woolen textiles, glass beads, and even chain mail.
The Archaeology of Political Complexity in West Africa Through 1450 CE
The nearby late 1st-millennium ce cemetery of Bura in Niger, located near an important gold source Sirbacontained elaborate terracotta figurines, ceramics, and trade items. Gao was known as the Kingdom of Kawkaw in medieval Arabic texts, and the archaeological city is divided into two areas several kilometers apart: Gao Saney market center with both trade and artisanal industries and Gao Ancien political center between the 8th and 10th centuries ce.
Gao Ancien also had an elite structure possibly a palace constructed of stones imported from km to the south in addition to fired-brick architecture. Data from glass beads found in both the eastern Niger Bend down to southern Nigerian sites may indicate an extensive trade axis along the Niger River during the medieval era. Research at Birnin Lafiya in northern Benin, located near the Niger River between Gao and the Nigerian cities, indicates evidence of interregional interactions including commerce and shared cultural practices, including the construction of potsherd pavements.
Islam likely played a role in developing these commercial networks, with good evidence that at least elites had converted to Islam in the late 1st and early 2nd millennia ce, but within the broader region societies may have maintained local religious traditions, as the use of terracotta figurines in Niger and lack of evidence for Islam in northern Burkina Faso attest.
Discussions Social Divisions and Specializations Differentiation A fundamental component of increasing political complexity is the creation of new, more formalized forms of group membership organizational building blocksranging from families to social classes. While in some parts of the world larger-scale sedentary foraging communities developed without agriculture, complex societies in West Africa are correlated with the adoption of agricultural economies, with pre-existing and continuing foraging populations in West Africa generally occupying small sites indicating mobile settlement systems.
In the archaeological examples above, evidence for and characterization of the nature of social groups includes markers of territoriality, spatial organization in sites, presence of cemeteries, architectural forms, mound-formation processes, stylistic variables, economic practices, and artistic representations. Regional trends over time vary significantly, with implications for greater political organizational developments.
At Tichitt, sites are divided up into household compounds of varying size with internal storage, although there is no evidence of economic specialization. Here, the durable settlement organization in stone may be drawing from a longer history of corporate ownership rooted in mid-Holocene Saharan herding practices. The clustered mounds of urban systems, like those around Jenne-jeno, also indicate spatially defined social entities, although evidence for functional differentiation between them remains uncertain.
In the eastern Niger Bend, sites such as Oursi or Kissi are composed of dispersed, economically undifferentiated households spread over large spaces, while the city of Gao split between two locations: In Nigeria, discrete households appear very early during the Nok culture, and a focus on divisions in the built environment is marked much later at sites like Ile-Ife by the construction of earthworks requiring intensive labor investments dividing settlements, including elite areas. In central West Africa there are likely diverse forms of social groups represented in the archaeological record, ranging from small households distributed in space Voltaic states to clusters of discrete mounds such as those found at Kirikongo.
Evidence that social groups were anchored in time and space is evident through the construction of durable mortuary features throughout West Africa; these also became more common after agricultural adoptions. The nature of mortuary traditions varies widely, from the use of ritual caves in Bandiagara to the cemetery at Kissi with many trade goods, the elite burial at El-Ouladji, the megalithic circles of Senegal both for individuals and groupsand burial under house floors along with an elite cemetery at Kirikongo.
Artifacts representing humans may also indicate ancestral beliefs, including the Nok figurines, which may have been associated with human burials, the Koma terracottas of northern Ghana that received libations, and terracottas in the cemetery at Bura, Niger. It is likely that similar practices are found in other locations as well but, like many ethnographic cases, may have been produced in less durable wood.
For example, in central Nigeria, iron-working as well as terracotta figurine production may have been specialized to some degree in the 1st millennium bce, and subsequent developments in southern Nigeria speak to artistic specializations ranging from architectural elements to bronze-working and glass bead production.
Trading specialists may have integrated different economic specializations by communities or populations within broader regions. For example, the eastern Niger Bend may have had areas devoted to farming Kissi, Oursiiron production Markoyeand gold exploitation Buraand cities like Gao may have been specialized marketplaces within the wider region. Similar regional differentiations could have taken place around Jenne-jeno in the Inland Niger Delta, as trade for iron ore and stone were required from the founding of the site.
Some fundamental transformations in iron production at Jenne-jeno in the late 1st millennium ce may indicate changing economic specializations. Some communities may have been established to specialize in commodity production and exchange for regional economies.
For example, at Diouboye, in addition to the site location in a gold-producing region Bambukthe extensive evidence for procurement and production of animal commodities suggests intensified production far beyond local needs.
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Foraging populations in some highland areas were also likely integrated into regional economies until the early 2nd millennium ce. It is currently unknown when the ethnicity-based specializations herders, fishers, etc. The co-option and specialization of iron-working by the founding house of Kirikongo likely involved restriction of technological knowledge and perhaps ritualized power. Political Process Organizational Modes To understand the political organization of societies in the region, one must examine how social groups were integrated within a greater system through both vertical hierarchical and horizontal mechanisms.
Evidence for largely undifferentiated households during early periods e. In Nigeria by the late 1st into the early 2nd millennium ce, combined evidence for the spatial segregation of leaders and elites, artistic specializations including representations of individualsand large labor works earthworks may indicate the presence of power centered in certain individuals or families, similar to what is known in the ethnohistoric record.
However, the extensive spatial structure of cities may imply some degree of lower-level control and autonomy by resident groups. To the north in the eastern Niger Bend, the cemetery at Kissi with evidence for variable access to local and external prestige goods may indicate the emergence of inequalities, but the degree to which these were achieved or ascribed is unknown.
However, by the late 1st millennium ce, elites in the city of Gao inhabited residences composed of imported materials and architectural techniques drawn from the Mediterranean and by the early 2nd millennium ce were constructing Islamic monuments in the cemetery. Here, Islamic leaders may have drawn political power from successfully negotiating interregional trade and religious connections.
From both archaeology and oral histories, by the later centuries of Ghana and during the Malian empire, long-distance trade may have played an increasingly important role in political legitimization. In the Voltaic region, avoidance of inequality may have influenced a prolonged trajectory leading to agricultural adoptions and later shaped the nature of complex societies.