Craig Lee | Inside Science | Visionlearning
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All these journals published reports claiming that recovered DNA segments have survived for millions of years despite extensive previous evidence of its rapid deterioration. Fast forward then to the year and not only have dinosaurian still-soft original biological structures and proteins been confirmed by sequencing, immunological experiments, etc.
Analyses of bone extracts for amino acid content yielded ratios similar to those found for modern ostrich and horse bone. Results indicate that the analyzed tissue contains numerous biomolecules. While some of the biomolecules are most likely contaminants, the probable presence of collagen type I suggests that some molecules of dinosaurian origin remain in these tissues.
Molecular preservation in Late Cretaceous sauropod dinosaur eggshells: To investigate preservation of biomolecular compounds in these well-preserved sauropod dinosaur eggshells, we applied multiple analytical techniques. Results demonstrate organic compounds and antigenic structures similar to those found in extant eggshells. Protein recovered from dinosaur eggs: Traces of protein have survived for more than 70 million years in dinosaur eggs from Argentina.
They bear strong similarities to proteins from chicken eggs. Buried by floods, the eggs fossilised unusually fast, preserving the soft tissues and tiny bones within. For atheists like AronRa, PZ Myers, at Talk Origins, and those at League of Reason who deny or doubt the existence of original biological material, this paper explains that researchers injected rabbits with these apparent dinosaur egg proteins.
The animals developed antibodies similar to those they produce in experiments with similar modern protein. The vessels and contents are similar in all respects to blood vessels recovered from extant ostrich bone… we demonstrate the retention of pliable soft-tissue blood vessels with contents that are capable of being liberated from the bone matrix, while still retaining their flexibility, resilience, original hollow nature, and three-dimensionality.
Manipulating dinosaurian soft tissue: The challenge of trying to manipulate, process and analyze vessels and cellular structures millions of years old is not a minor one.
A Journal of the American Chemical Society: Preservation of bone collagen from the late Cretaceous period studied by immunological techniques and atomic force microscopy by R. Late Cretaceous avian bone tissues from Argentina demonstrate exceptional preservation… to the microstructural and molecular levels. Bone tissues respond to collagenase digestion and histochemical stains.
Protein sequences from mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex revealed by mass spectrometryJ. Asara [of Beth Israel Med.
- Radiocarbon Dating
- Craig Lee: Ice Patch Archaeologist
We used mass spectrometry to obtain protein sequences from bones of a… million-year-old dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex. The presence of T. This paper generated much controversy, as colorfully reported by Wired, which concludes, "Asara and Schweitzer, in other words, have done just what the critics asked.
They've built a rigorous scientific case for the survival of 68 million-year-old proteins from a beast that animates children's imaginations. Soft tissue and cellular preservation in vertebrate skeletal elements from the Cretaceous to the present by Schweitzer, Wittmeyer, Horner. And remembering that biomineralization is the process by which organisms produce minerals to harden tissue such as an animal making calcium for bonethis same paper on dinosaurs pointed out that scientists had long considered the fossilization "of non-biomineralized tissues.
And "structures observed in most fossil specimens are similar in morphology, size, location and content to erythrocytes [red blood cells] observed in related extant [still living] taxa [group of animals]. Hollow, transparent and flexible vessels [which] were slightly pigmented" and its "Osteocytes… had pigmented elongate cell bodies, some with internal contents and short, stubby filipodia. Of the various dinosaur soft tissue types, the paper says: They are neither biomineralized nor have any obvious inherent characteristics that would favour preservation…" And of bacterial contamination and biofilms, in the year before the publication of the primary opposing theory, Schweitzer, et al.
If deposition of mineral upon microbial biofilm allowed retention of flexibility in one case, it is feasible to propose that the same process contributed to the preservation of the original vessel walls.
For this excerpt, remember that the word endogenous means originating within, of course, as opposed to an external contamination. We performed multiple analyses of Tyrannosaurus rex specimen MOR fibrous cortical and medullary [pregnancy-related bone] tissues remaining after demineralization. The results indicate that collagen I, the main organic component of bone, has been preserved in low concentrations in these tissues.
The findings were independently confirmed by mass spectrometry. We propose a possible chemical pathway that may contribute to this preservation. The standard explanation by atheists and evolutionists that I've seen, including at League of Reasonis that the biofilm interpretation published in has "refuted" the soft-tissue claims. Apparently that's your explanation too.
I can't be sure because rather than provide evidence for me and the readers you have simply stated that the soft tissue has been "refuted. But on its primary goal it was given far too much credit because it virtually ignored the following positive evidence from this same paper and from elsewhere: This finding suggests that the bone mineral is virtually unchanged from the living state and has undergone little if any alteration.
Additionally, experiments have been conducted independently in at least three different labs and by numerous investigators, and the results strongly support the endogeneity [internal origin] of collagen-like protein molecules.
Contrary to Evolutionary Expectations: The propaganda now likely to come like denying the Junk DNA claim, and like denying that NASA feared deep moon dust is that Darwinists will begin to deny ever having doubted the ability of soft tissue to survive for millions and billions of years. So, preemptively against the same likely development regarding dinosaur soft tissue, we remember the Discover magazine report that "all hell broke loose" when "Schweitzer's dangerous discovery The presence of original molecular components is not predicted for fossils older than a million years… -ScienceSchweitzer, et al.
PBS removed a biomaterial video that had been embedded here and was previously available at http: If you have a link to that video, please send it along to Bob rsr. Will current technologies enable dinosaur proteomicsby Gary B.
Smejkal [then associate professor molecular biology, University of New Hampshire]; Schweitzer. However, the observation of these components in multiple specimens of geological age, supported by amino acid sequence data from collagen preserved in the skeletal elements of T. The authors examined fossils from 15 genera and found no original soft tissue but only bacterial biofilm contamination.
Back in of course these authors were unaware of all later soft-tissue confirmations, but unreasonably even for then they glossed over the previously published immunological and protein sequence findings. Kaye of the Burke Museum of Natural Historyet al. Some atheists like our RSR debate opponent AronRa claim, without offering evidence, that the soft tissue finds have "been refuted. Tyrannosaur [involve] preserved biomolecules [of] preserved dinosaurian soft tissues [which if true would hold] the promise of biologic investigations of extinct animals.
The hollow [voids] of the tyrannosaur femur supported the general idea that an exceptionally well-preserved bone may act as a containment vessel for biomolecules. The authors found bacterial biofilm and other structures that visually looked similar superficially to the structures found in the soft tissue findings.
And their infrared investigation suggested that their dinosaur fossils were more similar to biofilm than to modern collagen. The primary helpful effect of their results was to add increased emphasis on the effort to exclude bacterial contamination from studies of dinosaur tissue.
For example, in the biofilm paper: Discovery of these spheres in an ammonite [extinct mollusk] suture [a rigid joint] indicated they had no relationship to iron derived from blood. However, the apparent biological heme from Jack Horner's T.
This is why Schweitzer was working with immunologists. Steven Spielberg had famed paleontologist Jack Horner on the set as a technical advisor during the filming of all three Jurassic Park blockbuster movies. Regarding the claim of Kaye's paper, for the bacteria to help preserve the endogenous tissue requires its presence contemporaneously or shortly after the animal's burial. This timing might be inferred also because these species of bacteria might prefer to be feeding on the decaying animal carcass.
Salzberg and Kaye's still unfinished JVP paper might help here. These Contrarian Authors Losing Defenders: Following the soft tissue developments carefully, it appears to us here at Real Science Radio that the frequency is declining of scientists linking to Kaye's paper as evidence against actual dinosaur soft tissue.
Even Michael Buckley, for example, who in in the journal Science strongly opposed Schweitzer's discovery, as of has become an advocate for the validity of the soft tissue finds.
Still, it is wrong to lump the above contrarian authors in with the many soft-tissue deniers including AronRa, Talk Origins, and League of Reason, who say things like Nigel Deplege. What you perhaps refer to is the discovery of fossilised impression of soft tissue structures. Recent discoveries [Genome-based identification… of collagen-related… motifs in bacterial… proteins] of collagen-like proteins in bacteria and viruses  add to the problem of unambiguous identification of vertebrate biomolecules.
But a dozen institutions both before and after this paper, disagree and continue to publish their confirmations. Fun YouTube Video Interlude: About this time, it seemed like many evolutionists would rather these discoveries never have happened even though they are the greatest paleobiological finds ever in history.
So YouTube videos like this were produced to bring attention to the peer-reviewed findings that it seems our evolution-minded culture would rather ignore: These authors report finding original biological tissue in the leg bone of a Hadrosaur, i. Microstructural and immunological data are consistent with preservation of multiple bone matrix and vessel proteins Then, reaching out to Darwinist soft-tissue deniers with the required reassurances, the authors offered comfort to the evolutionist camp regarding their own commitment to common descent: Duck-bill dinosaurs actually had "as many as 1, teeth" which were "more complex than those of cows, horses, and other well-known modern grazers.
The team from the American Museum of Natural History and FSU found "that hadrosaurids actually had six different types of dental tissues -- four more than reptiles and two more than expert mammal grinders An extremely well-preserved dinosaur Cf. Amino acid composition analyses of the mineralized skin envelope clearly differ from the surrounding matrix The presence of endogenously derived organics from the skin was further demonstrated by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry Py-GCMSindicating survival and presence of macromolecules Archaeopteryx feathers and bone chemistry fully revealed via synchrotron imaging by Bergmann, et al.
These authors report finding original biological material feathers in an Archaeopteryx fossil from the Solnhofen limestone, although only enough to make identification of the appropriate compounds at the appropriate parts of the animal's anatomy including skull, claws, feathers, feather shafts, postcranial skeleton, and teeth.
The P [phosphorus] distribution is clearly controlled by both bone as well as soft tissue remnant from the original organism. Although phosphatized muscle tissue has been re-ported from the Solnhofen 21the phosphorus and sulfur levels responsible for the rachis images presented here do not require the addition of P or S from elsewhere.
Zinc apparently was present in appreciable concentrations in the original bone as in many extant organ-isms and has been well sequestered within the bone over million years of burial. Other work 31 thus supports our most striking result: Ca [calcium] removal from some parts of the Archaeopteryx is negligible… …feather barb patterns are not merely topographic impressions… - PLoS One: Influence of microbial biofilms on the preservation of primary soft tissue in fossil and extant archosaurs by Peterson, et al.
Preservation of GROSS soft tissues is extremely rare, but recent studies have suggested that primary soft tissues and biomolecules are more commonly preserved within preserved bones than had been presumed. Some of these claims have been challenged Lee enlisted the help of Shane Doyle Figure 5 to serve as a liaison between tribes and researchers.
Doyle is a Crow tribal member who grew up on a reservation. A lifelong member of the Montana Indian Community as well as a singer of Plains Indian music, Doyle has participated in powwows and other ceremonies throughout Indian country for over a quarter of the century and has friends from every tribe. He has worked with Lee and other archaeologists in communicating with various tribal groups in the Greater Yellowstone Area and is particularly instrumental in connecting with people who are difficult to contact through email or mobile phone.
Doyle plays a pivotal role in bridging the cultural divide that often exists between scientists who study ancient tribal cultures and contemporary tribal communities themselves.
Shane Doyle, EdD and member of the Crow Tribe, serves as liaison between tribal members and researchers. Doyle, personal communication, August 26, Not surprisingly, ice patch archaeology on ancestral lands has cast the spotlight on cultural resource management and heritage values, bringing up concerns about how to properly collect, inspect, and protect culturally sensitive objects.
In the past, pre-contact archaeology in the Americas could be a source of conflict depending on how the tribes involved believed their heritage materials should be handled and interpreted. Among non-archaeologists, the lack of personal investment puts many ancestral objects at greater risk of theft by "treasure hunters," as evidenced by several cases of looting that have made the news, including the taking of spiritually significant artifacts.
Lee continues, "People will go artifact hunting and bring home objects to stash in their drawer for their own personal enjoyment as opposed to sharing the materials with the descendants of the cultures that created them as well as the rest of the citizens of the United States. In a Los Angeles Times interview, Greg Haverstock, a US Bureau of Land Management archaeologist, says that when people help themselves to Native American artifacts, "It damages archaeological records and the shared heritage of our nation.
It also impacts tribal members who regard the removal of such items as sacrilegious" Sahagun, On the other side, successful projects throughout North America have seen a true collaboration between tribal representatives and researchers to ensure respectful handling of sacred and otherwise important objects from tribal culture. The participating groups established a protocol for surveying culturally sensitive areas and handling any objects that might emerge from the ice National Park Service, According to Lee, it was an incredibly successful marriage between tribal interests and archaeological investigation, an out-and-out acknowledgment of climate change, and fruitful as a marketing tool to raise awareness of ice patch archaeology.
Further, the team created an aerial photo archive and other materials that will aid future investigations.
The survey area was less conducive to finding archaeological material in the first place due to steeper mountains, greater snow volumemore water flow, and loads of vegetation.
Comprehension Checkpoint In the past, a point of conflict concerning cultural artifacts found on ancestral lands centered on a. It takes a village Ice patch archaeology is by nature a multidisciplinary study that involves archaeologists, paleobiologists, tribal experts, cultural specialists, ecologists, and climatologists who are racing to tell the story of the past before it disappears in the thaw.
It takes a whole cadre of scientists to analyze the material gathered for study, including specialists in plants, polleninsects, and wildlife, among others. This coordination is key to the success of projects because some ice patches are divided by boundaries of different managing entities.
One group that has been indispensable to furthering work is the Greater Yellowstone Coordinating Committee GYCCa consortium of federal agencies that identifies cross-boundary issues on public lands. Data sharing with other entities is a must. For example, Lee is keen on exchanging information with other teams who conduct investigations into Greater Yellowstone Area ice patches.
He would like to share his methodsthought processes, and procedures for surveying, recording, and analyzing finds so they can be replicated and hopefully made better. Read more about these hallmarks of scientific inquiry in our module Scientific Ethics. Methods The field season for ice patch archaeology is short, from late summer to early fall, and conditions are unpredictable.
Investigation may be hampered by any number of unforeseen obstacles: But by far the biggest obstacle to fieldwork is winter weather since heavy snowfall and thicker ice layers conceal material that may have begun emerging in previous high-melt years. Given these hurdles, luck and flexibility are major factors in successful data gathering.
But in addition to the necessary dose of good luck, ice patch projects require careful planning. Initially, topographical maps augmented by other photographic images were used to identify potential areas to survey. More recently, virtual globes like Google Earth with its high-resolution satellite imagery combined with 3D modeling have helped to refine survey locations.
After a winnowing of candidates, the survey team may then take a fixed-wing aircraft to assess ice patches, as the best way to see them is from the air Figure 7. Aerial view of the Greater Yellowstone Area.
The best way to see ice patches is from the air. In addition to examining the ice patch itself, the investigators also look for areas of run-off and follow streams in search of materials that might have been carried off from where they melted out, sometimes several hundred meters away.
Any new field of investigation requires new methodstools, and techniques for locating, recording, collecting, and analyzing data. Among these, a modified technique for extracting ice cores was developed by the Glacier National Park team in partnership with the University of Wisconsin, Madison Figure 8.
This was necessary because of the particularly porous and dirty ice found in sub-alpine ice patches NPS, n. Many of the things that land in the snow get incorporated into the ice. When a big melt event happens, those materials — be they fecal pellets, leaves, dust, volcanic ash, plant and animal remains, lost tools — start to build up in a thicker layer, forming "lags," or debris-covered ice, that effectively form a barrier between the ice and the atmospherewhich slows down melting.
When an ice core is extracted, lags show as dark bands in the sample. The longer the melt period, the thicker the lags. These are separated, melted, dried, and then sampled for paleobiological material. See a field team drilling an ice core in Figure 9. Land "untrammeled by man"?
Ice patches are spread out over a vast expanse of federal lands. One major challenge to study teams is that permission cannot be granted to land a helicopter on some of the ice patches slated for survey. The Wilderness Act, signed into law inprohibits the landing of aircraft and the use of other forms of mechanical transport on any federal land designated as wilderness, whether it is found in a National Park or on U.
Forest Service land, so getting to some remote survey areas may require an arduous multi-day hike Figure The Act seeks to preserve the pristine condition of these areas "where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man" US Congress, The Wilderness Act of prohibits motorized transport on protected lands, so research teams must travel on foot to remote areas that are designated as "wilderness.
Ironically, they preserve the best evidence of trammeling around by pre-contact people. Humans were integral parts of the ecosystem.
Those who want to preserve a given "park" in an imagined pristine condition are aiming to achieve something that simply does not reflect the historical reality or condition of the parkland. In fact, archaeological evidence shows that the Clovis people an ancient Paleo-Indian culture were in Yellowstone as much as 12, years ago, and that the Park was teeming with people by 10, years ago.
We sometimes get so lost in the forest that we miss the trees," says Lee. Lee and his colleagues are looking forward to more involvement of Native peoples in these upcoming research efforts. A warming world affects the cultural heritage of groups of people as elements of an unfolding history are in danger of being lost forever. This is a story told in layers, and climate models suggest that there will be no slowing down of the telling in coming decades as warming continues.
Summary With a warming climate around the world, astounding archaeological finds have been melting out of ice patches. This module profiles the work of Craig Lee, a leader in the emerging field of ice patch archaeology in North America.
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The module emphasizes the importance of collaboration between archaeologists, tribal groups, and US government entities in an effort to appropriately collect, protect, and interpret culturally sensitive artifacts found on ancestral Native American lands.
Topics include research methods and the multidisciplinary nature of the work. The emergence of glacial archaeology. Journal of Glacial Archaeology, 1 11—9.
The Yukon Ice Patches.